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1. Evaluation of Alkaloids and Cardiac Glycosides Contents of Ricinus communis Linn. (Castor) Whole Plant Parts and Determination of their Biological Properties
Ibraheem O., Maimako R. F.
Extracts from Ricinus communis L. (Castor) plant have been used from time memorial in traditional medicine for treatment of many ailments. However the bioactive phytochemicals that confer these biological effects are often not ascertained. Using established protocols we isolated, quantified and determined some biological properties of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides present in the various Castor plant parts (leaves, stems, roots, seeds and capsules). Alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were found to be concentrated highest in the leaves and stems extracts at 11.2 % and 63.60 % yields respectively. The alkaloids and cardiac glycosides extracts gave an appreciable antioxidant and antihemolytic activities when compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole which are two known antioxidant and antihemolytic compounds, respectively. The highest antioxidant and antihemolytic activities were expressed by leaves alkaloids and capsules cardiac glycosides at 57.61 % and 379.66 %, respectively. Furthermore extracts of these two phytochemicals also decreases the growth and proliferation of pathogenic Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Thus Ricinus communis L. (Castor) plant phytochemicals are good source of alternative bioactive compounds which may be used in lieu of synthetic drugs that often comes with numerous side effects when administered.
ijtpr 6-3-1

2. Study the Prescription Pattern of Antibiotics in the Medicine Department in a Teaching Hospital: A Descriptive Study
Akram Ahmad, Megha Revanker, Irfanul Haque, A. Pravina, Rahul Ivan, Ram Dasari, Sheetal Kuriakose, Isha Patel
Antibiotics are one of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine and are widely used in reducing the infections. Irrational antibiotic use may result in increased cost of treatment, drug-drug interactions and also cause severe adversereactions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic usage in the general medicine department of a tertiary hospital in South India. The objective of the study was to determine the average number of antibiotics prescribed per prescription, to identify the indication for which the antibiotics were commonly used and to determine the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital.  This was a prospective observational study. About 200 patients who were prescribed antibiotics were included in the study. The data on antibiotic containing prescriptions from each patient was collected from the inpatient and outpatient department. The study was carried out from January to June, 2013. The data was collected on antibiotics was subjected for descriptive statistical analysis. A total of 200 prescriptions were studied, out of which 139 (69.5%) prescriptions were mono therapy and 61 (30.5%) prescriptions had multiple antibiotics. It was observed that out of 200 patients who were prescribed antibiotics, 110 were male (55%) and 90 were female (45%). Cephalosporins were most commonly prescribed antibiotics and ceftriaxone was prescribed mostly. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were Cephalosporins and most of the prescriptions contained mono therapy. The antibiotics treatment regimens given in most of the patients were without done culture sensitivity test before prescribing, which lead to irrational prescribing. Rational prescribing of antibiotics avoids polypharmacy and prevents antibiotic resistances.