International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Cadaveric Study of Dimensions of Human Adult Tricuspid Valve and the Attachment of Chordae Tendinae
Zeba Alam, Nakul Choudhary, Sanjay Manjhi, Rashmi Prasad
Background and Objective: The right atrioventricular valve is the largest of all the heart valve. From a functional standpoint the term ‘atrioventricular valve apparatus/complex’ is more appropriate. The tricuspid valve is often called the “forgotten valve” or “lost valve” because it is relatively understudied compared to the other cardiac valves. The normal data of the tricuspid valve complex is of great clinical importance in the light of progress in cardiosurgery. The right atrium communicates with the right ventricle through right atrioventricular orifice, which is guarded by right atrioventricular valve. The objectives of the present study are to measure frontal, sagittal dimensions, circumference, right atrioventricular orifice area, height of anterior, posterior & septal leaflet, average number of chordae tendinae attached to anterior leaflet and average length of chordae tendinae attached to anterior leaflet of the Tricuspid valve. Methods: The study sample consists of 50 formalin fixed adult human heart available in the Department of Anatomy & Forensic department of NMCH Patna. The parameters were noted meticulously and the data processed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that the morphometric measurement of Tricuspid Valve will serve as reference data for further studies, clinical use in patients with various cardiac abnormalities and construction of bioprosthetic valves for tricuspid repair.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.

2. A Comparitive Study of Lipid Profile in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patients with and Without Haart Therapy. A Hospital Based Study in Govt General Hospital, Kadapa, YSR District, Andhra Pradesh
P. Nagadasaiah, V. Lakshmidevi, U. Sreenivasulu, Challa Rajendra Naidu, V. Lakshmi Narasamma
Background:  Acquired immune deficiency (AIDS) is retroviral disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is seen in all continents of the word. There were approximately 39 million people across the globe with HIV in 2022.Of these 37.5 million were adults, and 1.5 million were children(<15years) . Antiretroviral drugs also have side effects like dyslipidemia of order of severity. Between 33 to 75% of patients with HIV infection  receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART) develop a syndrome  often referred to as lipodystrophy, consisting of elevations in plasma triglycerides(TGs), Total cholesterol(TC)  and  apoipoprote in B. HAART causes increase in low density lipoprotein(LDL). However, with protease inhibitors(PIs)-based therapies, HDL levels remain low and hypertriglyceridemia may be seen, giving rise to a distinctly atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: The aim of our study is to see the Dyslipidemia in HIV patients with and without HAART therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 150 subjects taken for study. The study was divided in to 3groups.Group-1: Healthy controls, Group-2: 50 newly diagnosed HIV patients and Group-3: HIV patients  on ART. The age group of the subjects varied from 25-50 years. Sample Collection: Blood samples were collected in ART centre at Government General Hospital, GGH, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.5ml of venous  blood sample was collected in plane tube in the morning after an overnight fast. After collection, the sample was centrifuged and serum was analyzed for estimation of  Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, High density lipoprotein(HDL) by  using Semi-auto analyzer (Erba). Serum  LDL cholesterol was estimated by using Friedewalds  formula. Stastical Analysis: Data was entered in MS excel .The data  was analyzed and consolidated  as mean and standard deviation(SD).To analyze the statistical significance, we are using SPSS 23 software. The test probability of less than 0.05(P<0.05) was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the present study the mean serum value of Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Triglycerides  are high in Group-2  compared to Group-1(P<0.0001) and mean serum value of HDL-cholesterol is low in Group-2 compared to  Group-1(P<0.0001). The mean serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Triglyceride value is high in Group-3  compared to Group-1 and  the mean value of serum HDL-cholesterol  is  low in group-3 compared to Group-1 (P<0.0001).The mean value of serum Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Triglycerides significantly high in Group-3 compared to Group-2(p<0.0001).The mean value of serum HDL-cholesterol  is significantly low in Group-3 compared to Group-2. Conclusion: We  concluded that lipid profile  can be a  good index of disease  progression in HIV infection.  Significant dyslipidemia is present in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.

3. To Compare the Post Operative Functional Outcome between Men and Women after Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction
Pavan Kumar G, Chandraprakash, Sagar Rampure
It is a strong band made of connective tissue and collagenous fibres that originate from the anteromedial aspect of the intercondylar region of the tibial plateau and extends posteromedially to attach to the lateral femoral condyle. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Study Area: This study was done at Hospital for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine, Arthritis and Accident -Trauma (HOSMAT), Bangalore, which is a tertiary care referral Centre for Orthopaedics and Sports medicine. Results: The mean age of the study population was 32.91 ± 8.36 years. Based on distribution, 40% belong to 17-30 years, 42% belong to 31-40 years, 14% belong to 41-50 years, 4% belong to 51-60 years. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of this study were able to demonstrate that females not only exhibited greater instrumented laxity after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction but also showed inferior functional scores in IKDC and Lysholm scoring systems as compared to men.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.

4. Evaluation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Stone Mine Workers of Rajasthan Region
Mahadev Choudhary, P Satynarayana, Prakash S Hundekar, Sunahara Dagur
Background: Silicosis has been known in industrial workers for millennia. Until recently, clinical evaluation of the respiratory system, pulmonary function tests, and chest radiography were the mainstays of its diagnosis and progression. Several indicators, such as serum angiotensin II, have been identified. The activity of converting enzyme (ACE) has been studied to identify the degree of silicosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, duration of silica dust exposure, smoking habit, and pulmonary function status on serum ACE activity in healthy quartz stone miners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 stone mine workers and 60 non- mine workers as a control. All the personnel who were being researched had their chests examined. They also measured the pulmonary functions. Blood samples were taken from exposed workers and the controls, centrifuged to separate the serum, and then refrigerated until serum ACE levels could be determined. Results: The participants’ mean age was 35.28 years in mine workers and 38.45 years in non- mine workers.  The ACE levels were directly associated with increase in exposure of silica and ACE level (76.45IU/L) was maximum in participants who were exposed to silica for more than 5 years. Males (68.32 IU/L) had higher ACE values compared to females (64.23 IU/L). Participants with smoking habits had values greater than non- smokers. Conclusion: We found no correlation between serum ACE activity and age, gender but was significant with duration of exposure, smoking behaviours, or pulmonary function status. Increased levels of serum ACE were discovered in cases of silicosis.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.

5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Hepatitis B Infection and Vaccination among Medical Students
Pahune Vishal, Surve Rahul, Magare Anwaya, Jadhav Vijaykumar, Salve Shobha
Rationale: TheHepatitis B virus is one of the most contagious blood-borne pathogens that can cause both acute and chronic liver disease. Use of contaminated needles for injections, blood transfusion, sexual contact, and vertical transmission from mother to fetus are the most common routes of transmission. About 10% of the patients develop chronic hepatitis and about 15% to 25% develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Vaccination is the mainstay of prevention against hepatitis B infection with 90% to 100% protection conferred following complete vaccination. The present study was carried out to assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hepatitis B infection and vaccination among medical students. Methods: The present cross-sectional descriptive was conducted amongst 399 medical students, interns, and residents from July 2022 to August 2022.  Result: In the study, students showed sound knowledge regarding Hepatitis B, safe practices & attitude. More awareness is required about Hepatitis B vaccination in pregnancy & newborn care. In the present study, only 56.5 % of students were vaccinated and all the 3 doses were taken by only 23 % of students. 14.8 % cited that they do not know where to go & receive it. 10.8 % were not aware of the vaccination. Whereas, 36.6 % were incompletely vaccinated. Conclusion: Participants had an overall sound knowledge regarding the structure of the virus, transmission, knowledge of complications and management. The majority of students were aware of safe practices and were following them. Initiating Hepatitis B campaigns to increase awareness of practice methods & vaccination drives would help increase practice levels and significantly reduce the incidence of Hepatitis B viral infections in the student community.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.

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