International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

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Πολυετή συμπτώματα για την αναγνώριση της διάσπασης του Αλτσχάιμερ και απόδειξη καρδιαγγειακών αλλαγών που προκαλούνται από αυτή τη διαταραχή. Ένας δεύτερος στόχος μπορεί να είναι η εκτίμηση της συχνότητας ενός κλινικά ωφέλιμου παράγοντα σε έναν μη μολυσμένο πληθυσμό.

1. In vitro Antioxidant Activity, In vivo Skin Irritation Studies and HPTLC Analysis of Cayratia trifolia (l.) Domin
Sowmya S, Chella Perumal P, Anusooriya P, Vidya B, Pratibha P, Gopalakrishnan, V.K.
Oxidative stress and inflammation are constant features of many chronic diseases and complications and it have been linked to carcinogenesis. Antioxidants from natural sources play a paramount role in serving endogenous antioxidants to neutralize oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and anti-skin irritation activity of Cayratia trifolia against perchloroethylene (PCE) induced wistar albino rats. The total alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol and tannin and antioxidant assays like, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin C were estimated. Skin irritation was induced through wiping PCE in knee skin of experimental rats. After 30 days the rats were sacrificed and histopathological studies were done. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant assays revealed that, the ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia posseses comparable antioxidant activity with standard drug. The HPTLC analysis shown that, tannin and phenol compounds present in this extract.  The histopathological results, when compared with control, PCE induced groups showed mild inflammation whereas ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia treated groups showed compact inflammation. Based on the results, it can be concluded that, ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia perhaps a natural source of antioxidants. In future, it may be potential natural resources for pharmacology of functional foods.
Abstract Online: 16-Dec-14

2. Protective Role of Icariin Against Oxidative Renal Damage in Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity
Jyotsnadevi Talapanti, Harika Kakumanu, Lavanya Yaidikar, Santhrani Thakur
Icariin (ICA), a flavonol glycoside derived from several species of plants belonging to genus Epimedium, family berberidaeceae. It is well known for its antioxidant properties. Its antioxidant potential against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity is not yet reported. The present study is hypothesized and proposed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ICA against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group I served as control; Group II received single intraperitoneal injection of 7 mg/kg body weight of Cisplatin; Group III received Cisplatin and ICA (50 mg/kg/p.o); Group IV received Cisplatin and ICA (100 mg/kg/p.o); Group V received ICA (100 mg/kg/p.o) alone. Cisplatin administration significantly altered the levels of renal function markers in the serum such as serum Creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), which were significantly restored with ICA treatment. Increase In urinary total protein (UTP), urinary clearance (UCr) and kidney lipid peroxides (MDA) along with concomitant reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes, which were also reversed upon ICA treatment. ICA protective effect was confirmed with histopathological studies. These results clearly demonstrate that the antioxidant effect of ICA might contribute to its protective effect against Cisplatin induced Nephrotoxicity.
Abstract Online: 18-Dec-14

3. Relative Tolerance and Nitrogenase activity of Several Heterocystous Cyanobacteria to Herbicide, Hiltachlor, 50 EC.
Sahu J K., Bhattacharyya  S., Deep  P R., Nayak  B

Effect of various doses of herbicide, Hiltachlor on growth, chlorophyll a content and nitrogenase activity (Acetylene reduction activity, ARA) was studied on two species each of genus Nostoc, Anabaena, Aulosira and Calothrix. Nostoc sp. UU29130 and Aulosira sp. UU25118 tolerated higher concentration of Hiltachlor and both the species of Calothrix having sheath are found to be more sensitive. Chlorophyll a content of the experimental organisms followed a similar trend like that of influence of Hiltachlor on growth. Sublethal dose of the herbicide completely ceased ARA of all organisms except Nostoc sp. UU29130 and Calothrix sp.UU24112. Further, the growth and nitrogenase activity under influence of herbicide on the experimental organisms does not go parallel. Response of Hiltachlor varied between the two different species belonging to the same genus.
Abstract Online: 24-Dec-14

4. Evaluation of protective effects of Apis mellifica against CCl4 induced toxicity in rabbits
Mehjabeen, Farah Saeed, Mansoor Ahmed, Noor Jahan
To investigate the effect of CCl4 in rabbits pretreated with low dose of Apis mellifica by carrying out lipid profile and histopathology. The rabbits treated with A. mellifica extract for three months were administered carbon tetrachloride 1.5ml five hours before drawing of  blood via cardiac puncture for LFT and carrying out histopathology of heart, stomach, liver and kidney tissues of the control and A. mellifica treated rabbits. Liver function test revealed following results: Total bilirubin (0.033±0.0046), direct bilirubin (0.023±0.0046) and gamma GT (9±0.632) levels were found lower, and SGPT (240±0.632) and alkaline phosphatase (126.83±0.658) levels were found elevated as compared to the control group. Histopathological changes in test group were compared with control group. In test group heart tissuesfocal myocytolysis of right ventricular wall was seen. In liver tissuesof test animals,mild portal inflammation and periportal fibrosis with Centri-lobular hepatocytic degeneration was noted. No significant pathology was seen in stomach and kidney tissues. Our research work revealed that pretreatment with A. mellifica significantly inhibited the CCl4 induced toxicity in test group as compared to control group.
Abstract Online: 11-Jan-15

5. The Effect of Substituted Thiopyrimidine Acyclic Nucleosides and Their Thioglycoside Analogs as Novel Anti-cancer Agents Targeting Metastasis and Angiogenesis on Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats
Mamdouh Moawad Ali, Abeer Hamed Abdel-Halim, Sherien Kamal Hassan, Nermin Mohamed El-Sammad, Aymn E. Rashad, Soliman M. Saaed
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious healthcare problem worldwide because of its increasing morbidity and high mortality rates. In our previous work new thiopyrimidine acyclic nucleosides and thioglycoside analogs 3a-c, 4a-c, 6a,b and 7a,b were synthesized and identified. Furthermore, the antitumor activities of all prepared compounds were evaluated in vitro against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and some compounds (2, 3b, 3c, 4a and 4c) showed promising anticancer effect. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects of the prepared compounds (2, 3b, 3c, 4a and 4c) by studying their ability to inhibit, reverse or restrict the development of cancer through inhibiting the metastasis and angiogenesis of tumor in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. To elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds exert their antitumor activities in the animals-bearing tumor the following parameters were determined (after determination their median lethal dose, LD50) including aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin as liver function test; hepatic tyrosine kinase and cytochrome P450 2E1 as marker for tumor progression; vascular endothelial growth factor and sialic acid as markers of angiogenesis; heparanase and elastase as marker of metastasis. Liver histopathological analysis was also evaluated. Carcinogenic rats recorded drastic elevation in all parameters under investigation which confirmed by histopathological distortion in the tissue organization with hyperchromatism, hyperplasia, proliferating hepatocytes. Compounds supplementation at 1/10 of the LD50, significantly reversed (improved) the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by NDEA in the order of 3c > 3b > 4a > 2> 4c. From the foregoing results we can concluded that, the tested compounds especially 3c and 3b may be potent anticancer agents for inclusion in modern clinical trials after more investigations on higher animals.
Abstract Online: 16-Jan-15

6. Scientific Note on the Effect Of Nutraceutical Containing Resveratrol Derived from Polygonum cuspidatum on Male Wistar Rat: Behavioral And Immunological Aspects
Bouhali Imed Eddine, Tayaa Hakima, Tahraoui Abdelkrim

The use of nutraceutical based polyphenols showed an increase demands in consumers due to its health benefits. However, the side effects of these products are not overall known. In this work, males wistar rats were exposed to resveol, european nutraceutical containing resveratrol, at dose 30mg/kg for ten consecutive days showed antidepressant behavior and dysregulation in immune cell count. These results ensure behaviorally the positive impact of this nutraceutical on emotional state, on the other hand, the perturbation of immune count implies to do more studies in order to ensure its safety on immune response.
Abstract Online: 16-Jan-15

7. Ethnophamacological Approach in Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds
D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, R. Mohapatra, S. Pradhan
From the natural products of medicinal plants, either as pure or standard compounds, give unlimited chances to new medication heads in view of the unmatched accessibility of substance assorted qualities. Because of an expanding interest for chemical diversity in screening projects, looking for therapeutic drugs from characteristic items, engage especially in palatable plants has developed all through the world. Botanicals and herbal preparation for therapeutic utilization contain different sorts of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the logical systems, which incorporate the extraction, isolation and characterization from botanicals and herbal preparation. The basic issues and key difficulties in the extraction, confinement and characterization of dynamic add-ins in botanicals and herbal preparations are talked about. As extraction is the most imperative venture in the examination of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the qualities and shortcomings of diverse extraction strategies are talked about. The investigation of bioactive mixes exhibit in the plant concentrates including the applications of basic phytochemical screening procedures, chromatographic systems, for example, HPLC/LCMS and, TLC and additionally nonchromatographic methods, for example, immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed in details.
Abstract Online: 20-Jan-15

8. Manuscript Withdrawn by Authors. 

9. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Aerva lanata
Vivek D, Nimisha G Nair, Anju M P, Bijesh Vatakkeel, Siju E N,  Aiswarya Lakshmi A G.
Objective: To evaluate the invitro anti-inflammatory activity of Avera lanata by HRBC lysis and protein denaturation. Method: The extract at different concentrations was incubated with HRBC and egg albumin in controlled experimental conditions and subjected to determination of absorbance to assess the anti-inflammatory property. Diclofenac sodium was used as the reference drug. Results: The present findings exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of lysis of HRBC and protein (albumin) denaturation by the A.lanata extract. The effect of diclofenac sodium was found to be less when compared with the ethanol extract. Conclusions: From the present study it can be concluded that A.lanata possessed marked in vitro anti-inflammatory effect against the HRBC lysis and denaturation of protein. The effect was possibly due to the polyphenols and flavanoid contents of A.lanata.
Abstract Online: 30-Jan-15

10. Anti Diabetic Neuropathy  and Pharmacological Evaluation of the  Indian  Traditional Herb Gymnema sylvestre
Raju lingumpelly P. JytothirmayeG. Naveen kumarM. Ravi kumar
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is an important complication of diabetes mellitus resulting in a great deal of morbidity. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy is about 26.1% in Indian population. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy is characterised by peripheral demyelination, decrease in the nerve conduction and degeneration of myelinated and demyelinated sensory nerve fibres. Aim and objective: The present study will be  undertaken with an objective to  evaluate  the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre on hyperalgesia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and in- vitro aldose reductase inhibition. Materials and methods:  Wistar albino rats, rendered diabetic with streptozotocin, were divided into 5 groups, namely the diabetic control treated with vehicle (DC), standard control which received glibenclamide+metformin (SC), test groups treated with 100, 200and 400 mg/kg b.w. of Gymnema sylvestre (GS1, GS2 and GS3 respectively). A group of five normal animals served as normal control (NC). Fasting blood glucose, body weight and reaction time to tail flick were measured one week after induction of diabetes. The animals were then treated orally for two weeks after which the same parameters were repeated. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition assay was carried out at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mcg/ml of Gymnema sylvestre using rat lens from normal rats. The in-vivo results were analysed with Mann Whitney test. Results:  The DC group demonstrated a decrease in the reaction time (hyperalgesia) compared to NC while a significant increase in the reaction time was observed with SC, GS2 and GS3 groups (p<0.05) as compared to the DC group. GS1 and GS2 showed a significant reduction in body weight compared to their baseline values (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the fasting blood glucose (FBS) in any of the groups. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition was observed with GS with an IC 50 of 103 mcg/ml. Conclusion: Hence this study  form the basis of an effort of Gymnema sylvestre reduece the hyperalgesia in experimental diabetic neuropathy. It has an aldose reductase inhibitory activity in-vitro which may contribute to the beneficial effects.
Abstract Online: 30-Jan-15


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