1.Toxicological Evaluation of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Spermacoce princeae (Rubiaceae), a Traditional Antibacterial Preparation Augustin Ntemafack, Donatien Gatsing, Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Huguette Nana Magnifouet
Spermacoce princeae (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the South-West region of Cameroon to treat some bacterial infections. The possible toxicological risks of aqueous leaf extract upon consumption were assessed in mice and rats. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity test was carry out using standard methods. after treatment, the on organs, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters was assessed using standard methods or kits. At doses above or equal to 16 g/kg, mice showed reduced locomotion, reduced reaction to noise and absence of faeces. A weight loss was noted in females that received 16 g/kg of extract during the first three days. The median acute toxicity value (LD50) of the extract were 13.20 g/kg and 9.60 g/kg for female and male mice, respectively. The extract at doses above or equal to 570 mg/kg raised serum ALT and AST activity, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and creatinine in male rats. In femele rats, and increase in serum total cholesterol level and red blood cell count was equally noted at all doses. Despite this increase, arteriosclerosis index was increases only in groups that received this extract at 1000 mg/kg and above. We noted and At all doses, the extract lowered urinary creatinine in males while in females treated at 1000 mg/kg and above, a decrease was also noted in heart and liver total protein for female rats and in kidneys for male rats. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of Spermacoce princeae leaves may be practically non toxic. However, precaution should be taken when high doses of this extract are to be used, and for a long period, as this may affect the central nervous system, induce constipation, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular diseases
2. In-vitro Intestinal Activity of Leaves Extract of Dryopteris chrysocoma Noor-Jahan, Mansoor Ahmad, Mehjabeen, Farah-Saeed, Shafi Muhammad, Asif bin Rehman
The male Filix-mas is one of the evergreen fern in different regions of Pakistan. It is abundantly found in moist and damp areas. The rootstock of the male fern has medicinal properties. The active principles are phloroglucinol derivatives. Filmarone and aspidinol are its constituents. The root extract causes laxation, it is also wormicidal but it has hepatotoxicity. The crude extract of leaves of D. chrysocoma was compared with standards as acetylcholine, atropine, adrenaline, neostigmine, metoclopramide and pheniramine. In-vitro effect of D. chrysocoma leaves extract was determined on isolated rabbit jejunum post treated with acetylcholine 1×10-4M, adrenaline 1×10-2M, pheniramine 1×10-2M and metoclopramide 5×10-2M. Crude extract of D. chrysocoma (leaves) showed smooth muscle relaxant effect. The leaf extract of D. chrysocoma showed slight muscle relaxant activity. The muscle relaxation increased as the dose increased. After relaxation the tissue comes to its normal condition, slight wavy pattern of movement was observed. Intestinal movement becomes regular and normal before washing while after washing intestinal motility increases. The crude extract of D. chrysocoma (leaves) produced its relaxant effect by adrenergic receptors. The drug potentiated the action of acetylcholine so the drug can be used to improve gastrointestinal activity.
3. Gold Nanoparticles of Argemonemexicana Induces Oxidative Stress and Inhibits Cell Growth in MCF-7 Cells Varun S, Sudha S
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the mainly accepted nano-compounds, have unique characteristics. Argemonemexicana is a plant of the Papaveraceae family that is rich in alkaloids. The cytotoxic properties of a new AuNPs, synthesized from an aqueous leaf extract of A.mexicana, were examined on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The cells were cultured for 48 h to allow growth and achieve about 80% confluence in 96 well culture plates, and then exposed to the AuNP for 24 h treatments. Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed. Cell viability decreased significantly as a function of different nanoparticle dosage (1.25 to 640 μg/mL) and exposure time 72 h. Exposure to AuNPs increased malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels with reduced glutathione levels (p < 0.05). The increased production of malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase release from the cells indicated lipid peroxidation and membrane damage. In conclusion, exposure to AuNPs results in a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in MCF-7cells that is closely correlated to increased oxidative stress. Additional research is necessary to apply the use of this novel compound in cancer therapy experiments.
4. Free radical scavenging activity of leaf extract of Rumex vesicarius L obtained by different methods Laouini S Eddine, Ladjel Segni, Ouahrani M Redha, Gherraf Noureddine
In this study, phenolic content, flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activities of leaves extracts of Rumex vesicarius L obtained by classical, ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet method were investigated. The total phenolic content and flavonoids were determined by a spectrophotom- etric method. Hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenger, DPPH radical-scavenging, Fe2+-chelating activity and hypochlorous acid scavenging methods were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The results indicated that the extract obtained by the Soxhlet extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained higher total contents of phenolic and flavonoids than the extracts obtained by two other extraction techniques (ultrasonic assisted and classical method). From the results that not only the more bioactive components are obtained but also the extract has better free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities through Soxhlet extraction method. These findings further illustrate that Soxhlet extraction has a bright prospect for extracting active ingredients from plant materials. From the above study it is concluded that the ethanolic leaves extract of Rumex vesicarius L is a potential source of natural antioxidant.
5. Therapeutic efficacy of Moringa oleifera and Camellia sinensis extracts in combination against peritonitis induced rat model Nikesh Solanki, Rajesh P. Jayaswal, Pranay P Pankaj
Objective: The present study evaluates the efficacy of Moringa oleifera and Camellia sinensis in combination in order to investigate anti-peritonitic activity in rat model. Material and methods: Methanol extracts in combination were assayed using varying concentration of extracts (25 mgml-1, 50 mgml-1, 75 mgml-1and 100 mgml-1) by well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method against E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, B. subtius and S. aureus. E. coliinduced peritonitic rat model was givencombinative extracts orally at the dose of 200 mgkg-1 bw day-1and 400 mgkg-1 bwday-1for seven days. Results:Well diffusion assay had shown variation in zone of inhibition (ZOI) depending on type of bacteria and concentration of extract used. P. aeruginosa, B. subtius, K. pneumonia, S. aureus and E. coli had shown maximum significant ZOIat the dose of 100mg/ml which corresponded to 21.37±1.19mm, 23.00±2.74mm, 20.75±0.65mm, 20.13±0.85 mm and 20.25±1.19 mm respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were ranged between 1 mgml-1 to 6mgml-1. E. coli, P. aeruginosa and B. subtitles had shown least value followed by K. pneumonia with highest MIC for S. aureus. Rat models shown increase in survival percentage, decrease bacterial count in blood keeping RBC and WBC count normal. Survival percentage was found to be reduced to 83.33% when treated with combinative extracts for seven days.