International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1.Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera Linn. Plant on Ethylene Glycol Induced Lithiatic Albino Rats
Sachan D.
The  ethanolic  extract  of  whole  part  of  Moringa  oleifera  plant  in  ethylene  glycol  induced  lithiatic  albino  rats  shows  marked  increase  in  renal  excretion  of  calcium  and  phosphate  in  two  different  doses  of  Curative  Regimen  of  250  mg/kg  and  300  mg/kg  as  well  as Preventive  Regimen  of  250  mg/kg  for  28  days  and  the  effect  was  compared  with standerd  drug  i.e.  Allopurinol.  The  increased  deposition  of  stone  forming  constituents  in the  kidney  of  calculogenic  rats  was  also  significantly  lowered  by  curative  and  preventive  treatement  using  alcohol  extract. Moringa  oleifera  is  a  deciduous  tree  of  immense medicinal  properties.  Whole  plant  specially  root,  bark,  leaves  and  fruits  contain  many important  phytoconstituents.  Literature  survey  revealed  that  plant  contains  flavonoids,  glycosides,  vitamins,  and  important  inorganic metals  that’s  why  used  as  an  important medicine  traditionally  in  many  ailments.  This  laid  the  basis for  selection  of  whole  plant  for  the  antilithiatic  activity.

2. Heart Rate Slowing By If Inhibition
Captan H.P., Desai P. A.
The slow diastolic depolarization phase in cardiac pacemaker cells is the electrical basis of cardiac automaticity. The hyperpolarization-activated current (If) is one of the key mechanisms underlying diastolic depolarization. Particularly, If is unique in being activated on membrane hyperpolarization following the repolarization phase of the action potential. If has adapted biophysical properties and voltage-dependent gating to initiate pacemaker activity. If possibly constitutes the first voltage-dependent trigger of the diastolic depolarization. For these reasons, If is a natural pharmacological target for controlling heart rate in cardiovascular disease. In this view, If inhibitors have been developed in the past, yet the only molecule to have reached the clinical development is ivabradine. At the cellular level, the remarkable success of ivabradine is to be ascribed to its relatively high affinity for f-channels. Furthermore, ivabradine is the most If-specific inhibitor known to date, since moderate inhibition of other voltage-dependent ionic currents involved in automaticity can be observed only at very high concentrations of ivabradine, more than one order of magnitude from that inhibiting If. Finally, the mechanism of block of f-channels by ivabradine has particularly favorable properties in light of controlling heart rate under variable physiological conditions. In this article, we will discuss how If inhibition by ivabradine can lead to reduction of heart rate. To this aim, we will comment on the role of If in cardiac automaticity and on the mechanism of action of ivabradine on f-channels. Some aspects of the cardiac pacemaker mechanism that improve the degree of security of ivabradine will also be highlighted.

3. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity ofAstaxanthin – A Lipid-Solid Dispersions Formulation against Acetaminophen Induced Liver Injury in Rats
Ajithkumar P, Jeganathan N S, Balamurugan K, K Radha
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid was separated from crude extracts of Villorita cyprinoides a black water Clam. Astaxanthin was formulated by lipid-solid dispersions techniques where astaxanthin was dispersed in the lipid matrix consisting of gelucire  and compritol at a ratio of 1:2. The astaxanthin: excipient ratio was maintained at 0.5:1.The prepared astaxanthin formulation (ASF 10) was evaluated for the hepato-protective activity against acetaminophen (2g/kg/b.wt/p.o suspended in 0.5% CMC) induced liver injury in Wistar rats. Hepatoprotective activities were measured by diagnostic marker enzymes such as AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin and total protein in serum; anti oxidant activities were measured in liver homogenates viz., LPO, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD and CAT. ASF 10 treatment results in significant hepatoprotective effect by normalising the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin and proteins. ASF 10 treatment also significantly altered the antioxidant levels in liver homogenates and these effects of ASF 10 were comparable to that of standard drug Silymarin. The results suggest that ASF 10 have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of some liver disorders in albino (Wistar) rats by its own antioxidant defence mechanism.

4. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Aqeous Leaves Extract of VitexDoniana
Ukwuani A. N, Salihu S., Anyanwu F. C., Yanah Y. M., Samuel R
Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the aqueous leaves extract of Vitex doniana properties against experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in albino rats. The aqueous leaves extract of Vitex doniana (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and Loperamide (5mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit and intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) was assessed respectively. In this study, the phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaves extract of Vitex doniana revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. At oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, the plant extract showed pronounced significant (p<0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity compared to the control group. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following the extract administration of up to a dose of 3000 mg/kg. The results showed that the aqueous leaves extract of Vitex doniana has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity which supports its use in traditional herbal medicine practice.

5. Analgesic and antipyretic effects of the ethanolic fruit extract of the Momordica cymbalaria Hook. Fenzl
Ramanath. B,Nagaveni.B, Narayana Pandurang Burte
Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanolic fruit Extract of the Momordica cymbalaria Hook. Fenzl. Ethyl alcohol extract of M.cymbalaria fruits evaluated for Acetic acid induced writhing, Tail-immersion and Yeast induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity. M.cymbalaria fruit ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing and reaction time in tail-immersion test. It also showed a marked antipyretic effect by causing a reduction in yeast-induced fever. The ethanolic extract of Momordica cymbalaria (500mg/kg) showed almost same effect to the same degree as paracetamol (20mg/kg). This study shows that ethanolic extract of M.cymbalaria Hook.F. has significant analgesic and antipyretic activity.

6. Pesticide Toxicity in wild Life with Special Reference to Avian: A Review
Nitesh Kumar, Shailendra Singh
Pesticide manufacturing companies have neither cared to register their pesticide nor provided their pesticide toxicity data. In Oregon, aldrin treated seed grain killed thousand of wild geese and other wildlife in 1973. In Canada 36 geese were killed in 1988 as a result of application of carbofuron and disulfan in Idaho. Phorate was involved in the death of hundreds of waterfowl and several bald and golden eagles in South Dakota in 1989. Many of the incidence involved wildlife kills result from misuse or illegal application. One such incidence occurred in 1990 when an applicator in North Dakota illegally applied carbofuran to carcase for predator control, he was found guilty of killing several forms of wildlife. Pesticides are used for preventing, destroying, repelling and mitigating any pest. Reducing the risk of pesticide exposure to non-target organisms requires applicators to incorporate crop scouting and integrated pest management (IPM) with knowledge of wild life cycle and habitat in developing a farm pesticide applicator plan. Development of such a plan will insure not only most cost effective means for controlling crop pest situations, but also result in the greatest reduction of risk of pesticide exposure to wild life. Pesticide when used with good judgment and care benefit for agriculture and environment to be reviewed in this paper.

7. Scorpion Toxins and its Applications
Baby Joseph, Jency George
Scorpion venoms consist of neurotoxins. Animal venom and toxins are the potential bioresource and therapeutic tool in biomedical applications. Chinese, believing scorpion venom have powerful analgesic properties. Scorpion venom has been used as traditional and folk therapy in various pathophysiological conditions. Scorpion venom is a complex mixture of salts, neurotoxins, peptides and proteins. Scorpion toxins have antiproliferative, cytotoxic, apoptogenic, and immunosuppressive properties. These properties make scorpion toxin as useful agents for therapeutic application. This article reviews focused on the application of scorpion toxins in therapeutic and agriculture

8. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Challenge to the Healthcare System
Rakesh Pahwa, Neeraj Alawadhi, Om Prakash Sharma, Vijay Soni, Prabodh Chander Sharma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema coexisting in the lungs of large number of patients. It is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The important risk factors for COPD take account of genetic factors, tobacco smoke, exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, occupational hazards, various infections etc. Significant pathological changes that take place in the lungs of patients can be characterized by an excess of extracellular matrix deposition, increased thickness of airway walls, mucus hypersecretions and destruction of alveolar septae. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies are currently employed to manage this diesease. Future advancements and innovations in this avenue at molecular level and development of new drug therapies will surely lead to improved therapeutic interventions. This manuscript highlights various clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment strategies of this severe disease.


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