International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Evaluation of Pioglitazone Preventive Effect, Compared to Vitamin E, in Glycerol Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats
Mousleh Rama, Al Laham Shaza
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still a serious complication of radiographic diagnostic and interventional procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of Iohexol to induce nephropathy in rats injected with Glycerol; then investigate Pioglitazone renoprotective effect on this CIN model in rats, focusing on the role of its antioxidant property in the prevention, and comparing it with that of vitamin E, a well-known antioxidant. 42 male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=7/group): healthy (A), Glycerol (B), Glycerol+ Iohexol (C), Glycerol + Iohexol + Pioglitazone (D), Glycerol+ Iohexol + vitamin E (E), Pioglitazone alone (F). Groups (B), (C), (D) and (E) were intramuscularly injected with Glycerol 25% (10 ml/kg). Iohexol (350 mg I/ml, 8,6 ml/kg) was injected through a caudal vein in groups (C), (D), and (E). Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) or vitamin E (250 mg/kg) were orally administered for 4 days, to groups (D) and (E) respectively. Rats were sacrificed on the fifth day. Blood samples and kidneys were collected. Serum urea and creatinine levels, kidney / body weight ratio and reduced glutathione (GSH) in kidney tissues were measured. The results show that in group (C), serum biomarkers and kidney weight / body weight ratio were significantly increased, and GSH levels significantly decreased, compared with group (B) and (A). These changes were significantly reversed in rats treated with Pioglitazone (D), and with vitamin E (E). In group (D) serum biomarkers were significantly lower than in group (E). But, there was no significant difference in GSH levels between those 2 groups. In conclusion, Iohexol could cause renal injury, and oxidative stress in rat kidneys previously damaged by Glycerol. Pioglitazone was able to protect the renal function better than vitamin E. However, their effects on GSH levels were almost similar.

2. Oral Supplementation of Vitamin C Reduced Lipid Peroxidation and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sawitra Sanguanwong, Orathai Tangvarasittichai, Chintana Sengsuk, Surapon Tangvarasittichai
We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial to investigate the effect of vitamin C (VitC) supplementation on lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), insulin levels and insulin resistance in 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 50 T2DM patients were the placebo group. All T2DM patients received either VitC or placebo identical tablet daily for 60 days study period. At the end of the study, the median of MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation, insulin levels and insulin resistance were significantly decreased (p<0.005) while TAC and insulin sensitivity were significantly increased (p<0.005) with in the VitC supplementation group. These effects also cause the reduction on blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides and increasing HDL-C levels. Vitamin C supplementation could be considered as an additional dietary supplement option to prevent and regulate underlying diabetic complications.

3. Nephrosis Oxalic Poisoning Oxalates Plants of Domestic Ruminants in Eastern Algeria
Metaï, B Baudin, M Boumendjel, M  Bairi, M Zaafour, Tahraoui A
Our work revolves around a screening of a disease that has caused lots of damages during the 70’s and 80’s of the last century: the oxalic nephrosis. In this study area, and to assess the implementation of several state outreach campaigns by the veterinary services related to agricultural and hydraulic directions at that time, we investigated this fact through 4 departments in eastern Algeria which are: Annaba, El Tarf, Guelma and Souk Ahras. Although it exists even in some animals, mainly in ruminant livestock (cattle, sheep and goat) results in extensive. We can say at the end of our investigation that this nephrosis still exists, but at a less alarming scale than the 70’s and 80’s.

4. EGCG: The Shield Against Genotoxicity Caused by Cisplatin
Choudhary A, Kaur B, SinghV S, Kalsi V, Shah K, Suttee A
Genotoxicity studies are of great interest because of the wide spread and often chronic use of modern medicinal products, food products as well as environmental chemicals. Cisplatin is platinum based potent chemotherapeutic agent used to treat a variety of solid tumor, however, it also known to interact with specific biological molecules and produce several side effects such as genotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Cisplatin produces genotoxicity by generating oxygen/nitrogen free radicals during chemotherapy and causes DNA damage. Hence, to overcome such side effects antioxidants are employed. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound is a potent antioxidant obtained from green tea. In the present experiment protective effect of EGCG against cisplatin induced genotoxicity was evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and bone marrow micronucleus assay. It has been observed that EGCG significantly reduces the number of revertant colonies induced by cisplatin in bacterial reverse mutation assay. Whereas pretreatment with EGCG significantly reduces the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in micronucleus test. The present result suggests that EGCG provides significant protection against cisplatin induced genotoxicity.

5. Pharmacological Potential of Asthma Weed (Euphorbia hirta) Extract toward Eradication of Plasmodium berghei in Infected Albino Mice
Jeje T O, Ibraheem O, Brai B I C, Ibukun E O
Malaria, a mosquito borne infectious disease of human and other animals affects a large number of the world’s population, and it’s caused by parasitic protozoan of the genus plasmodium. The search for new antimalarial chemotherapies has however become urgently increasing due to the parasite resistance to available drugs. Asthma weed (Euphorbia hirta) which is a natural therapeutic herb used for the management of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory diseases and other ailments was therefore investigated in order to establish the whole plant aqueous-methanolic extract in vivo antiplasmodial effects on chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei in infected mice, using the suppressive and prophylactic test models. The in vivo antimalarial activity of the Euphorbia hirta extract doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight) against P. berghei showed that it has significant (p<0.05) suppressive activity of 51 – 59 % and prophylactic activity of 25 – 50 % when compared with Chloroquine that gave 95 and 81 % suppressive and prophylactic antiplasmodial activities respectively. Result further showed that antiplasmodial action may not be through the oxidation of red blood cell membrane lipids as increasing extract concentration results in the reduction of the enzymatic activities of SOD and GPx, and concentrations of GSH and TBARS. We assumed that the antiplasmodial effect of the extract may have been contributed by its phytochemical components. This thus suggests that E. hirta plant extract has a very good potential pharmacological activity, and this could be beneficial in the development of new drugs for treatment or prophylaxis against malaria.

6. Effect of Polyherbal and Allopolyherbal Formulation on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats
Belhekar Santosh N, Chaudhari Pravin D, Pandhare Ramdas B, Pawar Anil R
Objective: The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of polyherbal and allopolyherbal formulation on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Material and Methods: The polyherbal formulation was prepared by mixing the five holistic extracts of Emblica officinalis, Gymnema sylvestre, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia and Zingiber officinale. The extracts were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in rat by streptozotocin (STZ) 65mg/kg i.p. injected 15 min after nicotinamide (NAD) 110 mg/kg, i.p. The diabetic rats were treated with metformin, a polyherbal formulation (PHF) at three dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) at 200 mg/kg, p.o. The drugs were administered for 60th days after induction of DM. Blood glucose level (BGL) was measured on 0, 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th days of study whereas glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), the plasma insulin level was measured at the end of the study. Various parameters of renal function tests, such as serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and markers of oxidative stress such as renal malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured at the end of the study. After 60 days treatment, urine creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, urine volume and kidney weight were measured and histopathological examination was also carried out.  Result and Discussion: At the end of the study, the diabetic control rats were showed significant increase in BGL, HbA1c and urine volume while treatment of diabetic rats with PHF and APHF was showing a significant decrease in BGL, HbA1c, urine volume. Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in renal function, which was reflected by an increase in serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and BUN and urine albumin while a decrease in serum total protein and albumin and urine creatinine, urea and uric acid. In addition, STZ-NAD caused renal tubular damage with a higher MDA level, depletion of SOD and CAT activity and GSH level. All the above parameters were significantly reversed with PHF and APHF treatment. Conclusion: This finding suggests that the treatment with PHF and APHF showed significant nephro-protective effect against STZ-NAD induced DN.

7. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Eruca sativa L. Seeds
Kishore L, Kaur N, Singh R
Oxidative stress ensues due to the imbalance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species eventually leading to cell apoptosis which in turn aggravates chronic disorders like diabetes and its related complications. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Eruca sativa L. against oxidative stress. E. sativa seeds were procured from the local market and authenticated from NISCAIR, New Delhi. In vitro antioxidative potential of E. sativa was evaluated by employing various in vitro antioxidant methods (total phenol content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase scavenging activity. The total phenol content was found to be 216.00 and 229.00 mg/g GAE in EA and EHA and total antioxidant capacity was found to be 111.00 and 230.60 μM/g ascorbic acid equivalents respectively. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity, IC50 values of EA and EHA was found to be 3.28 and 3.53 μg/ml, 188.11 and 181.56μg/ml, 73.05 and 64.33 μg/ml and 87.91 and 41.12mg/ml, respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that Eruca sativa L. has a significant potential to use as a natural anti-oxidant agent.

8. Antioxidant Activity of Acacia tortilis Polysaccharide in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats
Bhateja P K, Singh R
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Acacia tortilis polysaccharide (AEATP) from gum exudates in (STZ)-NAD induced diabetic rats. Male albino wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, diabetic rat+ glimepiride, diabetic rat+250, 500, 1000 mg/kg of AEATP. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), GPx, GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in liver, kidney and pancreas. In vitro antioxidant levels were measured through DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods. Positive antioxidant activities of AEATP were confirmed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Administration of STZ significantly increased fasting blood glucose level and oxidative stress by decreasing SOD, Catalase, GPx activities and GSH level whereas increasing MDA levels. AEATP showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose level compared to diabetic rats. Tissue SOD, Catalase, GPx activities and GSH level along with MDA levels were attenuated in diabetic rats by treatment with AEATP. These data suggested that AEATP possess antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects by reducing oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

9. Evaluation of Potential Toxicity of Bioactives of Anagallis arvensis– A Toxic Plant
Pande A, Vaze A, Deshpande V, Hirwani R
Toxic plants are found to have potential therapeutic activities. They have been used in the treatment of a number of diseases. Recently there is an increasing demand and interest in bioactive natural products from plants for the purpose of their use in herbal medicine. So critical evaluation of their toxicity has become necessary. This article provides the detailed toxicity information of the phytochemical constituents from the toxic plant Anagallis arvensis (Family Primulaceae). The plant is toxic to ruminants but it has great potential to treat diseases like Gout, Leprosy, Epilepsy, Urinary infection etc. The phytochemical constituents isolated from the toxic plant have Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Antitumour, Antidiabetic, Antidepressant, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective activities. Some bioactives are having therapeutic activity, no reported toxicity and were predicted to be less toxic. Many actives from this plant have not been explored for any activity and their toxicity has not been determined. These actives were found to be less toxic through the toxicity prediction tool. This study would be important for exploiting the potential of such actives which may further prove to be promising natural products for medicinal and cosmetic use.

10. Association Between Elevated Arsenic Exposure with Chronic Kidney Disease and Oxidative Stress in Subjects of the Contamination Area
Wasana Kayankarnna, Orathai Tangvarasittichai, Surapon Tangvarasittichai
Arsenic (As) is an important toxicant in environmental contamination that can cause diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The association between  As exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We aim to examine the association between  As exposure with CKD and oxidative stress in a total of 209 study residents of the As-contaminated villages. Individuals with high As exposure demonstrated CKD or renal insufficiency and increased oxidative stress.  In bivariate correlation, urinary As was significantly correlated with CKD markers and malondialdehyde levels. Multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses of the significant variables demonstrated that in these As exposure residents, independent predictors of As exposure were MDA (b = 0.412, r2 =0.285, p < 0.001), NAG (b = 0.171, r2 = 0.316, p = 0.007), and eGFR (b = -0.130, r2 =0.330, p= 0.046).  In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that As-exposure induced CKD or renal insufficiency concomitant with increased oxidative stress. It might be increased in morbidity and mortality of all degenerative diseases.

11. Screening of Neuropharmacological Activities of Viscum album and Estimation of Major Flavonoid Constituents Using TLC Densitometry
Pushpender Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Dhirender Kaushik, Suresh Kumar
Despite a long tradition of use in the treatment of mental disorders, Viscum album L. (Ujjral; family – Viscaceae) has not been systematically investigated to validate its traditional claims. The methanol extract of V. album aerial parts, its ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and 1-butanol fraction (BF) were screened for various neuropharmacological activities. The methanol extract, EAF and BF exhibited significant antianxiety activity comparable to the standard drug, diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) at the dose of 400, 10 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Only BF exhibited specific antidepressant activity using despair swim test at the dose of 50 mg/kg. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg), EAF (25 or 50 mg/kg) and BF (25 or 50 mg/kg) exerted mild antistress and analgesic effects, and exhibited significant hypnotic activity. The content of quercetin and apigenin was found to be 0.00452% and 0.00058% w/w, respectively, in V. album aerial parts.

12. Withdrawn

13. Antiinflammatory activity of whole plant of Catharanthus pusillus (Apocynaceae)
Mohan V R, Yokeswari Nithya, P Mary Jelastin Kala S
This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of the whole plant of Catharanthus pusillus.The antiinflammatory activity  was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. The ethanol extract of whole plant of Catharanthus pusillus was administered at different doses such as 150, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight and the study was compared with standard drug indomethacin (10mg/kg). The extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the traditional medicinal utilization of this plant.

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