International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Study on Antimicrobial Properties of U.V. Treated Shilajit
Mohd.Shadab, AnuAnupma, Kishor Pant
To investigate the antimicrobial activity (antibacterial & antifungal) of U.V. treated shilajit (US) and normal shilajit (NS) and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value.Methods:The antibacterial activity of NS & US was evaluated at different concentrations by agar well diffusion method against selected gram positive and gram negative organisms, MIC was determined by prescribed method and antifungal activity was also checked by the well diffusion method. Phyto chemical analysis was done by Kokate et al., 2009; Evans et al., 2002; Khandelwal et al., 1995 method.Results:NSdid not show any antimicrobial activity. However, after U.V. treatment shilajit showed the potentially good antimicrobial activity against all available bacterial strains and antifungal activity only against Penicillium chrysogenum. MICwas 2mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, 5mg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniaand 3mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus.Phyto chemical analysis showed presence of carbohydrates, triterpenes, flavonoids and cardiac glycosydes.Discussion:The results in the present study suggest that the shilajit change its antimicrobial properties by U.V. treatment, which showed good antibacterial activities. This studycould be useful to formulate the new antimicrobial bioactive compounds from U.V. Treated shilajit.

2. Blood Hemoglobin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Total Creatine Kinase  Combinely as Markers Of Hemolysis and Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Snake Bite
Kale Bhagwat, Lonkar Amar
Snakebite is a serious and important problem in tropical and subtropical countries including india.  The most common symptoms of snakebites are overwhelming fear, panic, emotional instability, nausea , vomiting, diarrhea, vertigo, fainting, tachycardia, cold, clammy skin etc. Death may occurs if sudden treatment never get.  Most commonly the toxins from snake venom affect blood cells, muscles and renal tissue thus causes hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure respectively. In this topic we had estimated blood hemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum AST , serum ALT, serum LDH and  serum creatine kinase activity. Blood hemoglobin found significantly lowered  along with increase in LDH as a result of hemolysis while serum creatinine level found elevated due to acute renal failure. Creatine kinase, AST, ALT  and lactate dehydrogenase activity in serum were found significantly higher in patients with snake bite as a result of rhabdomyolysis. However, AST and ALT are present in all body cells and hence are non-specific. Thus, increase in serum creatine kinase activity  can  bestly  utilized to access extent of rhabdomyolysis. On other hand , increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity  can bestly  utilized to access extent of rhabdomyolysis as well as hemolysis. Thus, serum LDH  and serum creatine kinase activity  can be combinely utilized along with blood hemoglobin level  in the diagnosis and prognosis of snake bitten cases and to access extent of hemolysis, renal failure and rhabdomyolysis.

3. Lithium Potentiate Oxidative Burden and Reduced Antioxidant Status in Different Rat Organ System
Devesh Kumar Joshi, Dusayant Singh Chauhan, Anumesh Kumar Pathak, Sudhanshu Mishra, Manisha Choudhary, Vivek Pratap Singh, Sandeep Tripathi
Long term lithium (Li) therapy has extensively used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Therefore, awareness of the numerous side effects and pathogenesis of this lightest alkali metal is needed for such treatments. To date, information on the interaction of Lithium (Li) with oxidative markers and systemic toxicity organs is limited. The present study was designed to investigate the systemic effects of Li on rat organs (kidney, Liver, brain and testies). 100 mg /kg b.w. of Lithium Chloride (LiCl3) was orally administered to rats for 21 days. The lipid peroxide levels (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reduced along with the liver and kidney function test were evaluated. In the organs (kidney, liver, brain, testies) of  the group, oral administration of Li increases LPO, PC and decreases SOD and CAT enzyme significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to control. The  changes in liver function and kidney function indicates impaired function of the xenobiotic metabolism.These findings suggest that oral administration of Li may produce pro-oxidant effect in rats and could be of interest for understanding the controversial role of Li in treatment of bipolar disorders. However, the precise mechanism of lithium toxicity is still incompletely understood.

4. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Annona Squamosa Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Ashok Sharma, Tara Chand, Manoj Khardiya, Kailash Chand Yadav, Rajesh Mangal, Ashish K. Sharma
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various extracts of fruit peel of Annona squamosa on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Different extracts (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Alcoholic) of Annona squamosa fruit peel was administered orally (250mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. The effects of different extracts of Annona squamosa on blood glucose and lipids profile were estimated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effects were compared with glibenclamide. The treatment with alcoholic extracts of Annona squamosa fruit peel and Glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of blood glucose. The alcoholic extract of Annona squamosa also resulted in a significant decrease in lipid profile. The decreased blood glucose and lipid profile clearly showed the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Annona squamosa fruit peel extract.

5. Altered Serum Micronutrient Levels Following Kerosene Exposure
Iyanda AA
The impact of oral or dermal kerosene administration on serum micronutrients in Female Wistar rats has previously been determined but because concurrent exposure through many different routes is common in human subjects in Nigeria.  The effect of exposure through more than one route at the same time is being investigated through this study. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6) and administered with 0.4 ml/kg body weight of kerosene through oral, dermal or combined routes with 6 serving as control. Three weeks after daily administration, blood was collected through retro-orbital bleeding and serum levels of vitamins (niacin, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, vitamins A, C, D, E) and elements (Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Mg, Mo, Cr, Co) were determined.All estimated vitamins were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) irrespective of the route of exposure except thiamine and pyridoxine compared with control. Inter-group comparison using ANOVA confirmed significant differences for all vitamins.  All the elements were significantly different except Cr that was not changed in oral and dermal group and Fe in the dermal group. The greater depletion in the levels of all micronutrients observed in the combined group compared with either oral or dermal suggest that exposure through more than one route is capable of aggravating micronutrients depletion in these rats. In addition, Cr that was not significantly changed in rats in oral or dermal route was significantly decreased in the combined group.

6. N-Acetyl Cysteine treatment plus standard care reduces duration of mechanical ventilation in hair dye poisoning
Kondle Raghu, Pathapati Rama Mohan, Saginella Satish Kumar, Malliboina Srinivas, Sujith Tumkur Rajashekar, B. V. Subramanyam, Madhavulu Buchineni
Poisoning is one of the preferred means of suicide and Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common chromophoric ingredient in oxidative hair-dyes, is frequently used for this purpose. Crude estimates reveal that more than 500 patients received treatment for hair dye poisoning in our region. Reports have shown that increased free radical formation in PPD poisoning. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, both directly as a glutathione substitute and indirectly as a precursor for glutathione. In order to evaluate if the inclusion of NAC in the treatment of poisoning with PDD could be beneficial, a single center open label quasi experimental study was conducted at our hospital. We found that there was a significant reduction in the duration of ventilator support in the patients who received NAC (3.13±1.5days) as compared to patients who received standard care only (6.25±3.85 days) (p=0.01). However the duration of hospital stay was not statistically different. (p=0.56). Our results suggest that the inclusion of NAC treatment into standard care in hair dye poisoning may reduce duration of ICU stay and could thus be superior to standard care only.

7. Copper Hyperaccumulating Plants From Barak Valley, South Assam, India For Phytoremediation
Das, S. Goswami, S, Das Talukdar, A.
Copper is an essential trace mineral which at high doses can be extremely toxic.  Cu pollution of soil and water can be both natural and anthropogenic. Existing technologies for Cu remediation such as leaching, solidification/stabilization and excavation are expensive, time consuming, labour intensive and soil disturbing. However, phytoremediaton of Cu from contaminated site is a lucrative and emerging concept which is not only cost effective but also ecofriendly. It is based on the fact that certain plants, during the process of nutrient uptake, remove pollutants from the environment. Such species can hyperaccumulate pollutants in their root, shoot and leaves. Several plant species of Barak Valley, South Assam, in the north east part of India, possess substantial hyperaccumulating potential that can be used for Cu phytoremediation from soil and water. Present study thus explores phytoremediation potential of such plants found in this region.

8. Assessment of Genotoxic Impurities in Pharmaceuticals by In-Silico and In-Situ Derivatization-Headspace GC-MS Methodology
Waykar R., Sharma C.
Pharmaceutical industry recognize the obligation to control impurities at safe concentrations in drugs. As part of this obligation, substantial efforts were made to limit known genotoxic impurities. The control measures applied proportionately to the actual risk to the patient and balanced against the benefits of the pharmaceuticals and the public availability of medicines. The current version of US FDA , EMEA guideline has classified genotoxic impurities as genotoxic  based on evidence from in vivo and/or in vitro studies,  and by the use of a knowledge base expert system for the prediction of genotoxicity potential. The flow diagrams which indicate ways of addressing genotoxic potential of impurities. A generic approach for Acetone Azine in pharmaceuticals by In-silico and In-situ derivatization-headspace GC-MS methodology was developed with reference to few method available at public domain.

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