International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Extracts from Haloxylon articulatum Bioss Growth in Oued Souf – Algeria
Tamma N Eddine, Gherraf N Eddine, Laouini Salah Eddine, Kefi Serra, Limam Ferid
This study intends to investigate plants that grow in southeast Algeria namely Haloxylon articulatum   Bioss. which are commonly used by medical science for a treatment. More especially this study shed light on the antioxidant effect and biological activity of the plant whereby extraction of the active ingredients phenol is taken into account. The active ingredients were identified through the scanning device using High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). In-order to get deep insight into the body of knowledge towards extraction process; current study utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach.  The data was analyzed separately on the anti-bacterial activity and oxidation of the phenolic extracts. The obtained results revealed a significant effect on the proliferation of some bacterial strains and free radical. In addition, of the phenolic extracts have shown less effective than the antibiotic chosen “polymyxin B” on bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6816 and Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistant. As phenolic extracts have shown greater efficacy than the antibiotic chosen “polymyxin B” on bacteria Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Hence, based on the empirical evidences it can be stated that from various concentrations approach; the sensitivity of bacteria Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 against phenolic extracts.

2. Heat-Cured Methyl Methacrylate Induces Increased Expression of HSP70 and iNOS in the Liver
Zeid A Al-Hourani, Nour S Erekat, Soheir M Al-Mansi
Introduction: Exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA), which is a widely used monomer in dental and medical fields, has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects on liver. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the mechanism toxic effect of MMA on liver, via investigating alterations in the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein70 (HSP70) in the liver, subsequent to the oral administration of MMA in rats. Methods: 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly selected and divided into two groups: control group, and experimental group. The experimental group was orally administered 120 mg/kg of MMA daily 5 times per week for four weeks. Changes in the expression of HSP70 and iNOS in the liver tissue was investigated using Immunohistochemistry technique. Results: Exp group had statistcaly higher hepatic expression of iNOS  (p < 0.01) in comparison to the control group, by approximately three folds. Similarly, rat hepatocytes in the experimental group showed statistically significant (p < 0.01) increase, by approximately 15 folds, in the expression of HSP70 compared to that in the control group. Conclusion: The presented data suggest that exposure to MMA might cause liver injury as indicated by the prominanat elevation of the oxidative stress biomarker iNOS and the biological stress biomarker HSP70.

3. Prevalence of Aspirin Resistance among Jordanian Patients with Cardiovascular Disease
Eman Elayeh, Mohammad Mohammad, Mohammad Fararjeh, Eman Abu-Rish, Islam Hamad, Violet Kasabri, Amal Akour, Yasser Bustanji
Introduction: Despite the wide range of aspirin indications, there is a considerable amount of patients do not respond to aspirin, who also are referred to as aspirin non-responders or aspirin resistant patients. Aims and objectives: This study was carried out to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of aspirin resistance in Jordanian patients with cardiovascular disease and further clarify the clinical predictors of aspirin resistance. Materials and methods: Biochemical aspirin response was assessed based on the measurements of urinary11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (11-dhTxB2) levels using FDA approved diagnostic kit. Patients taking aspirin (75-325mg) for at least 7 days were prospectively enrolled from all stable cardiac patients presenting at Jordan University hospital outpatient clinics. Results: Eighty six (86) patients were enrolled in this study. Another twenty four healthy individuals were enrolled to function as a control group. The mean urinary levels of 11- dhTxB2/creatinine were significantly lower almost 3- times in patients in the primary and secondary aspirin prevention group compared with the control group (1567.58 vs. 4236.19 pg/mg, p-value <0.005). Thirty-one patients were found to be aspirin resistant with a prevalence of 36%.  Conclusion: Our findings of aspirin resistance are particularly important given the large number of patients using this medication for prevention of atherothrombotic events. These results indicate that aspirin resistance should be diagnosed so that individuals with no response to aspirin can receive an alternative or an additional antiplatelet therapy.

4. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits of Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme (Mill.) Irish and Heracleum nepalense D. Don
Koirala Pramila, Singh Bimala
The fruit of Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme belonging to the Family Solanaceae is a widely used spice in Sikkim, a North Eastern state of India. The fruit of Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme locally called ‘Dalle Khorsani’ is a valuable cash crop of Sikkim and also possess medicinal properties. Heracleum nepalense D. Don locally called ‘Chimphing’ belongs to the Family Umbillifereae and is extensively used in folk medicine.  The present study evaluated the antimicrobial property of fruits of Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme (Mill.) Irish and Heracleum nepalense D. Don using agar well diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The antioxidant property of methanol extracts of fruits of these test plants was also investigated. The antioxidant property was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay and Ferric reducing power assay. The total phenolic content was determined by using Gallic acid as a standard. The methanol extract of both the plants inhibited the growth of mostly Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli among Gram negative bacteria. However the acetone extract of the selected plants did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. The methanol extracts of these plants exhibited significant (p<0.05) concentration dependent increase in DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The extract of Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme (Mill.) Irish also exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) ferric reducing ability thereby showing higher antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analyses of the plant extracts revealed the presence of phenol, tannin, flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid and saponin. The results of the present study indicate that Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme (Mill.) Irish and Heracleum nepalense D. Don can be a potential source of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and can be explored further for its therapeutic use.

5. Determination of Bioactive Compounds of Methanolic Extract of Vitis vinifera Using GC-MS
Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Imad Hadi Hameed
The objectives of this study were analysis of the secondary metabolite products and evaluation antibacterial activity. Bioactives are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Thirty three bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Vitis vinifera. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of Vitis vinifera revealed the existence of the Butanol , 2-nitro , α-D-Glucopyranoside , methyl 3,6-anhydro , Propanedioic acid , amino -, diethyl ester, DL-Arabinose , Hexadecenoic acid, Furfural, 1H-Pyrazole-1-carbothioamide , 3,5-dimethyl- , 2-Furanmethanol , 2(1H) Pyrazinone, o-Acetyl-L-serine , 1-Nitro-2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxy-d-mannitol,  6-Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one , Acetic acid , 2,2′-[oxybis(2,1-ethanediyloxy)]bis- , Desulphosinigrin, D-Glucose , 6-o-α-D-galactopyranosyl-,  Cyclohexene , 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-,(S)-, -D-Glucopyranoside , O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-β- , 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone , Cis-2-Ethyl-2-hexen-1-ol, Maltose , 7-Oxa-2-oxa-7-thiatricyclo[,80]decan-4-ol , 1-Gala-l-ido-octonic lactone , 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural , Cyclohexene-1-methanol,α,α,4-trimethyl-,propanoate ,  Hydroxymethylfurfural , Octanamide,N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-, 1,2,4-Trioxolane-2-octanoic acid , 5-octyl-,methyl ester, 9-Octadecenoic acid , (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl ester  9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol,(3β,5Z,7E)-, 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol           Hexadecanoic acid , 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester, 9-Octadecenamide ,(Z).

6. Phytotherapy for Escherichia coli: Iranian Native Medicinal Plants with Anti-Escherichia coli Effect
Reza Khadivi Boroujeni, Negar Khodabandeloo, Mahdiye Ghadirali Khorzoughi, Reza Mohammadrezaei-Khorramabadi, Mansour Amraei, Somayeh Delfani
Escherichia coli bacteria as a gram-negative bacilli of Enterobacteriaceae family causes different diseases in human such as wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, meningitis, premature and weak children birth, peritonitis and cholecystitis. One of the major pathogens that has shown resistance to most antibiotics is Escherichia coli. Therefore, development of natural antibacterial agents such as medicinal plants for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. This study was aimed to present the phototherapy of Iranian native medicinal plants with anti-Escherichia coli effect. The required information was obtained by searching key words such as Esherichia coli, Native medicinal plant of Iran, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils of related published articles in authentic scientific databases. Results showed that different native medicinal plants were effective against E. coli in Iran, including Cuminum cyminum, Mentha piperit, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Rosmarinus officinalis, Stachys inflate, Thymus caramanicus, Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Allium cepa, Ocium gratissimum , Olea europaea  and  Carum copticum.

7. Indoor Contaminants in Chemical Laboratories: Characteristics of BTEX by Environmental and Biological Monitoring
Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Noushin Rastkari
BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) are the most important categories of VOCs that occur in the indoor air and often used in chemical laboratories. In the present study the excretion of urinary BTEX were evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to these compounds. The mean value of benzene in breathing zone and the total benzene uptake during the work shift of the two groups of technicians and students in chemical laboratories were 32.11and 46.82 µg m-3 and 14.55 and 34.11ngL-1, respectively, which were significantly greater than the occupationally non exposed groups. Good correlations (0.839 ≤ r ≤ 0.946) between the mean values of BTEX in breathing zone and the urinary concentrations were observed.

8. Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan Extracted Via Different Extraction Methods
Parisa Sadighara, Ehsan Haghi, Tahereh Mohajerfar, Mahmoud Bahmani, Majid Asadi-Samani
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has antioxidant properties. It can consider as an antioxidant agent in food supplements. In this study the effect of extraction methods on the antioxidant activity of chitosan was investigated. Three methods including enzymatic, acid and alkaline methods were applied for isolating the chitosan from shrimp waste. The content of extracted chitosan was measured and its antioxidant activity was investigated by employing various analyses such as assay of their power on the oxidative stability in sunflower oil and DPPH. Inhibition of lipid per-oxidation was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. The extracted chitosan by enzymatic method had best antioxidant activities. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that good yields can be obtained via enzymatic treatment. According to the results, the content of chitosan influences on antioxidant activity. The chitosan extracted by enzymatic method can be a source of antioxidant agents in manufacturing food and supplement.

9. Microbial Quality Assessment of Packaged Natural Mineral Water in Lorestan Province, Southwest of Iran
Mahmoud Bahmani, Homa Ahmadi-Rouzbahani, Reza Sepahvand, Masoum Hatamikia, Maryam Tavasoli, Tahmineh Rajabi, Alaleh Mohareri, Elham Hedayati, Majid Asadi-Samani, Somayeh Delfani
Natural mineral water which todays attract more trend rather that tap water in urban societies and has been appreciated for high level hygiene. This study considered microbiological quality of packaged natural mineral water marketed in Lorestan province where 35 samples were purchased randomly, were tested for presence of different indicator microorganisms. 31.42% out of 35 samples didn’t fulfilled standard condition in terms of unacceptable total Coliforms count while E. coli, Staphylococcal, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcal, Sulfite-reducing Clostridia counts weren’t observed.  Those results revealed the necessity of more control on treatment and filling process which might be the most probable steps for sanitation.

10. Rheumatoid Arthritis: History, Stages, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment
Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
The pharmacological mechanisms of the medicinal plants traditionally used for RA in Persian medicine are discussed in the current review. Further investigations are mandatory to focus on bioefficacy of these phytochemicals for finding novel natural drugs. Rheumatoid arthritis is chronic, progressive, disabling autoimmune disease characterized by systemic inflammation of joints, damaging cartilage and bone around the joints. It is a systemic disease which means that it can affect the whole body and internal organs such as lungs, heart and eyes. Although numbers of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for rheumatoid arthritis but they have adverse effect that can compromise the therapeutic treatment. Unfortunately, there is still no effective known medicinal treatment that cures rheumatoid arthritis as the modern medicine can only treat the symptoms of this disease that means to relieve pain and inflammation of joints. It is possible to use the herbs and plants in various forms in order to relieve the pain and inflammation in the joints. There are so many medicinal plants that have shown anti rheumatoid arthritis properties. So the plants and plant product with significant advantages are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The present review is focused on the medicinal plants having anti rheumatoid arthritis activity.

11. Protective Effect of Moringa Oleifera Leaves Against Tramadol-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice
Ashraf Albrakati
Tramadol, a broadly in recent years, is an effective analgesic agent for the treatment of moderate to acute pain. Its metabolites are excreted by the kidney which may cause nephrotoxicity. Moringa oleifera leaves are commonly used to provide herbal and plant-derived medicinal products especially in developing nations. The present study was carried out to determine the biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of tramadol-treated albino mice and to evaluate the possible protective role of Moringa oleifera leaves against tramadol-induced nephrotoxicity. Twenty adult albino mice were divided into four groups. Control group (group i) received daily intraperitoneal injection of normal saline only, group ii received oral dose of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (20 mg/kg/bw) for three weeks, group iii received daily intraperitoneal dose of tramadol (0.3 mg/kg/bw) for the same period, group iv, received daily oral dose of Moringa oleifera leaves extract, (20 mg/kg/bw) three hours before injecting intraperitoneal dose of tramadol (0.3 mg/kg/bw), for the same period. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of the experiment for kidney function tests and specimens from the kidney were processed for histological study. No significant differences in the mean values of the kidney function tests were noticed between Moringa oleifera group and control group. However, there was highly significant increase in the mean values of serum, urea and creatinine in tramadol-treated group as compared to the control group. Although tramadol + Moringa oleifera group revealed significant difference in the mean values of urea and creatinine when compared with tramadol-treated group. So, Moringa oleifera leaves extract have been shown to attenuate the renal dysfunction, improve the renal architecture, with nearly normalization of serum urea and creatinine levels which indicate improvement of renal function. In conclusion, in the light of biochemical results and histological findings, co-administration of Moringa oleifera leaves lessened the negative effects of tramadol-induced nephrotoxicity; possibly by its antioxidant action. Further investigation of these promising protective effects of Moringa oleifera leaves against tramadol-induced renal injury may have considerable impact on developing an adjunct therapy aiming to improve the therapeutic index of some nephrotoxic drugs.

12. Protective Effects of Indonesian Propolis Against Light-Induced Retinal Damage
Paula M. Kustiawan, Hiroyuki Okuyoshi, Yoshiki Kuse, Hiroshi Izawa, Yuichi Saito, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Chanpen Chanchao, Hideaki Hara, Masamitsu Shimazawa
The pharmacological and biological activities of Indonesian propolis are mostly unexplored except for its anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the protective effects of the methanol extract of Indonesian propolis (MEP) obtained from the stingless bee (Trigona incisa) against light-induced retinal photoreceptor damage. Murine photoreceptor (661W) cells were cultured and treated with MEP. The cells were exposed to cellular stress inducers such as tunicamycin, hydrogen peroxide, and  light irradiation. The protective effects of MEP were assessed by determining production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), analyzing changes in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) level, analyzing caspase-3/7 activation, and by using the zebrafish retinal degeneration model. MEP significantly reduced cell death induced by tunicamycin, hydrogen peroxide, and white light irradiation in a concentration-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of NF-κB decreased and light-induced activation of caspases-3/7 and intracellular accumulation of ROS were inhibited. The thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONL) in zebrafish retina significantly increased following MEP treatment. The MEP obtained from stingless bee propolis has a protective effect on photoreceptor retinal cells and has the potential to be developed as a supplement in prevention of retinal diseases.

13. Determination of Bioactive Chemical Composition of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Sinapis arvensis Using GC-MS Technique
Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
Plants play an important role in providing food for humans. Among plants economic significance medicinal and aromatic plants which played a critical where it used as therapeutic agents to a long time. Thirty bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Sinapis arvensis: Erythritol , Nitro-2-propanol , Cyclopentanemethylamine ,2-isopropylidene-N,N,5-trimethyl, Furfural ,   3-(1,3-Dihydroxyisopropyl)-1,5,8,11-tetraoxacyclotridecane , 3-Azabutyl-1-ol,4-cyclopropyl-3,3-dimethyl-,bromide , 1-Butene , 4-isothiocyanato- , 2,4-Difluorobenzene , 1-benzyloxy- , Eicosanoic acid , phenylmethyl ester , α-D-Glucopyranoside ,O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-β- , Trigonelline , 4H-Pyran-4-one ,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl , Estragole ,  Pentanenitrile , 5-(methylthio)- , 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ,  Eugenol , Maltose , 2H-Thiopyran-3,5-diol ,tetrahydro-4-nitro-,monoacetate ( ester) ,  Tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile ,  3,6-Diazahomoadamantan-9-one Hydrazone , 9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol , (3β,5Z,7E)- , 13-Heptadecyn-1-ol , Tributyl acetylcitrate , E)-13-Docosenoic acid , Phthalic acid , decyl oct-3-yl ester , γ-Tocopherol , Desoxo-9x-hydroxy-7-ketoingol 3,8,9,12-tetraacetate ,  Campesterol , γ-Sitosterol ,    . The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight, molecular formula, MS Fragment- ions and Pharmacological actions.

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