International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Immunotoxicity of Lambda-Cyhalothrin in Wistar Albino Rats
Kumar Bhoopendra, Kumar Nitesh
Immunotoxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was conducted in wistar albino rats @ dose level of 10 mg kg-1. The parameter for humoral immunity such as haemagglutination test and total globulin estimation whereas for cellular immunity intradermal tuberculin test and in-vivo/in-vitro splenocytes proliferation test. The haemagglutination showed significant (p<0.05) inhibition of haemolysin titre and gamma globulin concentration. The cellular immunity exhibit significant (p<0.05) decrease in skin thickness in tuberculin test, total lymphocyte, % lymphocyte in treated group. Histopathological examination of adrenal showed congestion in modularly areas, infiltration of inflammatory cells and some necrotic area also observed in cortex and medullar region, focal concentration of the neurocytes’ cytoplasm with pyknosis and disappearance of some purkinje cells. Proliferation of glial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells in brain. Microscopic examination of kidney showed tubular haemorrhage, congestion in glomeruli, glomerular atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and tubular degeneration. The microscopic examination of liver of rats revealed degeneration of hepatocytes, condensed nuclei, vacuolation and congestion in the central vein, spleen of rats exhibited atrophic changes in the white pulps characterized by decreased size of lymphoid follicles and periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS), red pulp showed marked hemorrhages and hemosiderosis with a relatively increased collagenous connective tissue stroma between the narrow compressed vascular spaces were also seen and depletion of lymphoid follicles with small sized PALS.  The cortical atrophy, characterized by necrosis of cortical lymphocytes with large clumps of nuclear debris to form “starry sky” appearance of cortex. Subsequent to thymicnecrosis, the cortex appeared thin as compared to control. Thymic lobules showed progressive atrophy. The tubular structure lined by epithelial cells was dilated and contained a homogenous eosinophilic material were observed in thymus gland.

2. Fixed Drug Eruption with Exacerbation of Bullous Pemphigoid Due to Carbamazepine : A Case Report
Nivethitha T
Fixed drug eruptions are one of the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions reported. Though drugs like analgesics and certain antibiotics are commonly implicated in its causation, yet antiepileptics like carbamazepine can cause a fixed drug eruption by distinct immunological mechanisms, the lesions being so extensive so as to mimic a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Here we present a case report of a fixed drug eruption with exacerbation of bullous pemphigoid by carbamazepine. The case is reported for its rarity of occurrence and also emphasizes the need for pharmacogenetic and haplotype testing before drug administration, so that individualization of therapy will become the gold standard of treatment in the future.

3. Fermented Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extract as a Novel Anticancer Agent Targeting Angiogenesis and Metastasis
Abeer E. Mahmoud, Mamdouh M. Ali

Inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. Our previous work has revealed that solid state fermentation improved the antioxidant activity of pomegranate. In the present study, the ability of the fermented and unfermented pomegranate in inhibiting tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis were investigated. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the fermented and unfermented pomegranate has been assessed against five human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549). The results revealed that the fermented and unfermented pomegranate exert their actions in HepG2, MCF-7 and HCT116 through inhibition of the activity of both urokinase (uPA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC( which implicated in the development of cancers. fermented pomegranate extract revealed promising anticancer activity compared to the activity of the commonly used anticancer drug, doxorubicin with decreasing the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a marker of angiogenesis and inhibition in a metastatic as measured by reduction in the activity of elastase enzyme. In conclusion, the results suggested that the fermented and unfermented pomegranate (especially fermented pomegranate) methanolic extracts can be used as good candidate for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer possessed significant anticancer activity through regulation angiogenesis and metastasis of cancer.

4. Evaluation of Triazophos Induced  Histopathology and Recovery in a Fish Anabas testudineusa.
Jayakumar, D.Sudarsanam, Garg Ramesh, P.Praveena
Histopathology is promising field for research in aquatic toxicology as it provides the real picture of the toxic effects of xenobiotics in vital functions of a living organism (Anees, 1976). The extent of histopathological damage inducing in the test and the amount of cell damage in relation to concentration of toxicants are utilized in assessing the toxicity of pollutants. It is generally evident that structural change are more serious than functional abnormalities,over more  structural alternation is irreversible while altered function is considered as a reversible effect. The change in the structure at tissue, cellular and organelle levels can be correlated with the functional alterations.Couch (1975) stated that gill, liver, intestine and kidney of fish species are the best suited organs for histopathological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxic effect of pesticides namely triazophosto fresh water fish Anabas testudineus. Fresh water fingerlings of Anabas testudineus of length 16cm±1cm and weight 72±1g were procured from the fish farm at kolathur, Tamilnadu,Southindia. The collected fish sample  were acclimated to laboratory conditions in dechlorinated tap water for 15 days.Impact of Triazophos as mixed in fresh water at 5%, 10%, 15% and for a duration of  46hrs,96hrs recovery, have been assessed. The fish was fed with commercial fish food during acclimation. Susceptibility of the fish Anabas testudineusto the toxic effect of the organophosphorus, Triazophos, observed as percent mortality increased with an increase in concentration of triazophos. Mortality in controls was virtually absent, (Table 1) reveals the LC50 upper and lower confidence limits, and fitted regression equation along with slope function for 96 hrs exposure periods. The pesticide triazophos is found to be more toxic to the fish Anabas testudineus. The acute toxicity studies in Anabas testudineus 96 hr LC50 value for triazophosisis recorded as 0.270 ppm. The histological investigations in Anabas testudineus exposed to Triazophos were found to be highly toxic and the histological alterations were manifested with increase in concentration and duration

5. Cytoprotection by Extract of Khaya senegalensis Stem Bark on Rats Fed Pesticide-Infused Feed
Mhya, D.H., Umar, I.A., Onyike, E

Cytoprotection by aqueous extract of Khaya Senegalensis stem bark on rats fed pesticide-infused feed was investigated. Induction of tissues injuries was done by feeding rats with cypermethrin-infused feed at a dose of 300mgkg-1 feed for 6 weeks. Different groups of animals were co- and post-treated with 200mgkg-1 body weight (bwt) of plant extract orally. The extract control group received 200mgkg-1 bwt extract while the pesticide control animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed. Investigation showed that daily oral dose of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark administered produced significant (p<0.05) protection by decreasing the severity of cypermethrin-mediate tissues architectural damage. However, treatment with same extract dose failed to reverse alteration induced prior to its (extract) administration. This study, therefore confirmed that cypermethrin-induced tissues deformation as part of its mechanism of it toxic action in the body, and this can be protected by extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark.

6. Toxicological Evaluation of Aqueous Fraction of Ficus racemosa and Bauhinia variegate bark in rats.
Solanki N D, Bhavsar S K
Ficus Racemosa (FR) grows in the green tropical regions in India. Bauhinia Variegate (BV) is distributed in Himalayan region and widely planted in tropic regions of the world. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity. The aim of the study was to evaluate toxicity of the aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa and Bauhinia variegate bark in rats. Acute toxicity test was conducted by single high dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of the rats. Delayed effects of aqueous extracts of FR & BV on haematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. No mortality & signs of neurological and behavioural changes were noticed with in 72 h when treated with FR & BV. Delayed effects of extracts were observed and found no significant change in body weight as compare to normal animals; while significant changes were observed of liver parameters by use of FR & BV. No any significant change found in creatinine & total protein level, while haematological parameters were not altered during toxicity study compare to normal animals. Histopathology revealed no specific structural changes in the heart, kidney, liver & nerve tissues when treated with FR & BV compare to control animals.

7. A Review on Mechanism of Nitrosamine Formation, Metabolism and Toxicity  In-vivo
Sharma Veena, Singh Rashmi
Nitrosamines, an important class of carcinogens, are widely classified into volatile and tobacco specific compounds that contain various nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine derived nitrosamines and also those that are specially found in smoke. Nitrosamines are formed via various nitrosating agents and also formed endogenously through pyrrolidine. During nitrosamine metabolism, several intermediates are formed that may be directly bind with DNA, alkylate them or react with another compound to form alkylating agents that may cause mutation and cancer. Literature reported that cytochrome (CYP) P450 subfamilies are involved in nitrosamines metabolism that catalyze specifically alpha but sometimes beta hydroxylation of nitrosamine to form hydroxylated product. Reports suggest the specific relationship between cytochrome and nitrosamine metabolism. Specific CYP 4502A members express in specific organs of body where nitrosamine metabolism takes place.

8. Effect of Smilaxchina on Mercuric Chloride Induced Histopathological Alterations in Testis Of Male Albino Rats
SaravanaKumar S, Christilda Felicia, Sundarapandian S
There is a growing problem of worldwide contamination of the environment with mercury. The fate and behavior of mercury in the environment depends on its chemical form, which affects the spermatogenesis of a man. Smilax china is an Traditional Herbal root tuber which is used for various medical allignments. The present study is to evaluate the Protective Effect of Smilax china on Merucric Chloride in testis of the Albinorats.The animals were divided in to 5 groups i)control ii) High dose Mercury (1mg/Kg/BW) iii) low dose Mercury (0.5mg/Kg/BW) iv) High doseMercury ( 1mg/Kg/BW) and Smilax china 400mg/Kg/BW v)Low dose mercury (0.5mg/Kg/BW) and Smilax china 400mg/Kg/BW) for period of 30days orally. The animals were sacrified and the Histopathological analysis were done.Animals treated orally with Mercury chloride shows Necrosis in lumen, intranuclear vaculoation on secondary spermatogonia, and irregular arrangement on the primary spermatogonia. Degenerative changes on the leydig cells, and occasional detachment of the epithelial cells are seen .Animals treated Prophylatically with Smilax china shows decreased intranuclear vaculoation in primary and secondary spermatogonia, tubules are uniform and there is no detachment of the epithelial cells, showing the Protective effect of Smilax china on Merucric chloride intoxication on Testicular TissuesHence Smilax china can be used as a drug of choice for increasing the Spermatogenesis. The study supports the ancient traditional review that Smilax china can be used in condition like infertility to increase the sperm count.

9. Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. in Mice and Rat
Kumbhar S. P., More R. R., Burande M. D., Waghmare P. V.
Aqueous extract of leaf of Tridax Procumbens Linn. belongs to the family Asteraceae is most important medicinal plant used for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, and diarrohea and for restoring hair. Also the plant produced reflex tachycardia and showed a transient hypotensive effect on the normal blood pressure of dogs. It has also a marked depressant action on respiration. The Skeletal muscle relaxant activity of TP was evaluated by using the Rota Rod method in mice and rat. This effect can be easily studied by using inclined plane or rotating rods. In the presence study the muscle coordination test, Diazepam (3mg/kg), TP (4.2, 8.4 and 12.6 mg/kg) (i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) caused the fall of time indicating the muscle relaxant effect. In conclusion it is observed that TP has muscle relaxant activity.

10. Hypolipidemic and Hematological Effects of Hydromethanolic Extract of Leaves of Bridelia Micrantha on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Omeh Y.N, Ezeja M.I, Onoja S.O, Ukattah E.C.
This study evaluated the hypolipidemic and hematological effects of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Bridelia micrantha on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of 160 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate. Three doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) of Bridelia micrantha extract (BME) were used for the study and the effects compared with a reference drug (glibenclamide, 2mg/kg) and distilled water. The extract and drug were administered to the rats orally for 14 days using gastric gavage. On day 14, blood was collected from the media canthus of the eye of the rats for lipid profile analysis and hematology. Also the rats were weighed on days 0, 7 and 14. Bridelia micrantha extract just like the reference drug (glibenclamide 2 mg/kg) caused various levels of significant (P<0.05) reduction of the total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) at 125 mg/kg when compared to control group. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was only reduced at 125 mg/kg of BME. The extract also caused non-significant increases in the values of RBC count, PCV and hemoglobin at 125 and 250 mg/kg.  The body weights of the distilled water treated rats were decreased on days 7 and 14 while that of the extract and glibenclamide treated rats were significantly (P <0.05) increased on days 7 and 14. In conclusion, Bridelia micrantha has demonstrated significant hypolipidemic activity and beneficial effect on the hematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

11. Determination of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Ability of Flavonoids of Cichorium Intybus
Mathur Neha, Pande Katare Deepshikha, Aeri Vidhu, Kishore Amitesh, Joshi Vidushi, Madaan Alka,  Verma Ritu
The hydroalcoholic fraction of the leaves of Cichorium intybus was tested for the presence of flavanoids and the hepatoprotective activity of this flavanoid containing extract was tested against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines. A dose dependent increase in the viability/restoring effect was observed when hydrogen peroxide exposed HepG2 cells were treated with the different concentrations (100ng/ml- 200µg/ml) of the hydroalcoholic fraction. It was observed that in the presence of 0.5mM hydrogen peroxide cell viability was reduced from 100% to 66% and with 1mM hydrogen peroxide, it was further reduced to 19.3%. The damaging effect was restored in the presence of the hydroalcoholic fraction of Cichorium intybus leaf extract, in a concentration dependent manner. This study can further lead to the isolation and characterization of the flavanoids of the plant extract responsible for the hepatoprotective properties.

12. Retracted by Authors

13. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Induced Angioedema: A Case Report
Shantal Boodoo, Kavita De Gannes, Sandeep Maharaj, Sureshwar Pandey, Akram Ahmad,  Sameer Dhingra
A thirty five-year-old woman developed angioedema during her treatment with the drug perindopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for hypertension. The woman received perindopril at a dose of 10 mg once daily for hypertension. After six hours of administration, she developed swollen lips and lower part of the face, and difficulty upon swallowing. Investigations revealed the high blood pressure with an increase in pulse and respiratory rate. The pharynx was oedematous. She was diagnosed with perindopril-induced angioedema. Perindopril was discontinued and the patient received intravenously hydrocortisone stat and oxygen 4L/min and followed up with cetirizine 10 mg od and prednisolone 10 mg tds for 5 days. The patient had fully recovered after five days. A Naranjo assessment score of 7 was obtained, indicating a probable relationship between the patient’s symptoms and her use of drug perindopril.

14. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor in polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to ovarian drilling
Nervana Samy, Mie Afify, Amgad k. Hassan, N. Bakr, Nabila Abdl Maksoud, Mohamed Saeed
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common endocrine disorders that cause anovulation and consequent subfertility. The Objective of this study is to determine the serum level of the angiogenetic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the relationship between VEGF and other hormones before and after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in Egyptian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A prospective controlled clinical study was conducted on 40 clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS diagnosed by ultrasound examination and a history of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and obesity were studied, and they were scheduled for LOD and a control group of 22 fertile regularly menstruating women. Serum level of VEGF and other hormones were measured and compared between the two groups, and before and after LOD in the PCOS group.Results: Serum VEGF concentrations in women with normal ovaries was significantly lower than in women with PCOS before as well as after ovarian drilling. No difference was found in the serum VEGF levels in women with PCOS before and after ovarian drilling. Serum LH, LH/FSH ratio, estradiol and testosterone were significantly lower in women with normal ovaries in comparison to women with PCOS before as well as after ovarian drilling, while LH, LH/FSH and testosterone significantly decrease in PCOS patients after ovarian drilling. There were significant positive correlations between VEGF and LH and LH/FSH in PCOS before ovarian drilling. Conclusion: VEGF levels in women with PCOS are higher than in normal women, and ovarian drilling does not affect these levels. Higher serum levels of VEGF in PCOS women may be related to the increased vascularity, which plays a pivotal role in ovarian pathology.

15. Nootropic Activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. In Mice and Rat
Aute A. A., More R. R., Burande M. D., Shetkar M. A.
Aqueous extract of leaf of Tridax Procumbens Linn. belongs to the family Asteraceae is most important medicinal plant used for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, and diarrohea and for restoring hair. Also the plant produced reflex tachycardia and showed a transient hypotensive effect on the normal blood pressure of dogs. It has also a marked depressant action on respiration. The Nootropic activity of TP was evaluated by using three methods i.e. Elevated plus maze, cook’s pole climbing and ‘Y’ maze methods in mice and rat. In the Learning and memory study TP at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly p< 0.01, p<0.01,p <0.001, and p< 0.01 decreased the time taken to avoid the unconditioned stimulus at day 1, day 2, day 5 and day 9 respectively while 6 and 9 mg/kg (i.p.) showed significant p <0.001 avoidance of an shock at day 5. TP 3 mg/kg (i.p.) showed significant p<0.01 activities at day 1, while TP at 6 mg/kg (i.p.) showed significant (p<0.001) and p<0.05 at day 5 and 9, while TP 9 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.001) activity at day 2, 5 and 9 when administered in combination with Scopolamine. In EPM TP at 4.2 mg/kg (i.p.) showed significant (p<0.01) increased in transfer latency at day to day. In ‘Y’ Maze TP 4.2 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) decreased the percentage of actual arm entries at day 7, while 8.4 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly (p< 0.01) decreased the percentage of actual arm entries at day 1, 2 and 5. Thus data of the present experiment suggest that the drug-induced changes could be interpreted as modification in the retrieval or recall phenomenon.

16. Prediction of Cytoxic Effects of SMA-DMSO in Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line Using MTT Assay
Singh P, Bansode F.W, Ganguly C
Biologically active polymer of SMA-DMSO( RISUG) formulated in ratio 1:2 and known to work as non hormonal contraceptive for males was analyzed for cytotoxicity  invitro in mouse fibroblast adherent cell line, L929 using MTT Assay. Cells were exposed to different concentrations (10-3–10-9M) of SMA-DMSO (RISUG) for different periods of time i.e. 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. preceded by addition of Tetrazolium salt 4 hours prior to completion of each incubation period. Percentage cell viability was calculated as per the MTT assay.A dose dependent statistically significant decrease in the percent cell viability was observed following the 24 hr exposure of test compound between 10-3M to 10-5M concentrations.Further, A recovery trend was observed in cells following an incubation periods of 48, 72 and 96 hr. This investigative study has signified that doses of 10-6M to 10-9M were non-cytotoxic in L929 cells on overall analysis.

17. Locomotor Activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. in Mice and Rat
Shetkar M. A., More R. R., Burande M. D., Kumbhar S. P.
Aqueous extract of leaf of Tridax Procumbens (TP) belongs to the family Asteraceae is most important medicinal plant used for bronchial catarrh, dysentery, and diarrohea and for restoring hair. Also the plant produced reflex tachycardia and showed a transient hypotensive effect on the normal blood pressure of dogs. It has also a marked depressant action on respiration. The Locomotor activity of TP was evaluated by using two methods i.e. Actophotometer and Hole Board methods in mice and rat. In the Actophotometer study diazepam, TP 4.2, 8.4 and 12.6 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) decreased the locomotor activity. Thus the results of the present investigation indicate that TP extract dose dependently depresses the central nervous system, which is evident from TP induced decrease in locomotor activity. In this present study, Diazepam, TP 4.2, 8.4 and 12.6 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) produced decrease in the number of head dipping and also decrease in the exploratory behavior as compared with the self-control treated group in the hole board test. Thus TP extract dose dependently depresses the CNS, which is evident from TP induced decrease in locomotor activity.

18. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Azadirachta Indica (leaf) Extract in Chemical and Thermal Induced Pain Models in Rats
Madhavulu Buchineni, M.Rajesh Kumar, B.L Kudagi, Rama Mohan Pathapati, Salmakamal, M Haritha, V Bhopal chandra
Objectives: The present study carried out to evaluate the Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic activity of Azadirachta indica (leaf extract) by using chemical and thermal induced pain models in albino rats. Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by Carrageenan induced paw edema volumes at 0,1,2,3 hours   using mercury plethysmometer which served as chemical induced pain model and the Analgesic activity was evaluated by using Eddy’s Hot plate induced hyperalgesia which served as thermal induced pain, where the animal was placed on the hot plate and the reaction time to (lick the paw/ jump out) from the hot plate was observed, for every 30min from 0 to 3hrs. Azadirachta indica (500mg/kg BW) and Celecoxib (100mg/kg BW) was administered per oral. Results: Animals treated    with A. indica (500mg/kg) and Celecoxib (100mg/kg) has shown maximum inhibition of paw edema by 0.99±0.06 at 3 hrs and 0.79±0.05 at 2hrs respectively, where the percent of  inhibition  was16.27%  and 34.83%, (p<0.001)  which  revealed  that  A.indica  has  a  potent   anti-inflammatory activity. In the Hot plate induced hyperalgesia peak analgesic action was observed at 5.26±0.13 at 2 hrs in Azadirachta indica and 5.04 ± 0.33 at 1.5 hrs in Celecoxib treated rats. The analgesic activity and anti inflammatory activity of of A.indica was significant effect over to Saline and lower when compared with comparator drug Celecoxib and it was statistically significant (p<0.001) Conclusion: The results indicate that the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (leaf) extract revealed significant Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic activity in Thermal and Chemical induced Pain Models.

19. Evaluation of anti-obesity activity of Convolvulus pluricaulis extract
Abhishek Sharma, Surajpal Verma, Shyam Baboo Prasad
In modern era obesity is consider as lifestyle disorder which can trigger several disease. Obesity may leads to hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus, endocrinal abnormalities, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, osteoarthritis, and higher mortality from some cancer like oesophagus, colon rectum and breast. At present only two drugs have been approved for long term use in the treatment of obesity that is sibutramine and orlistat. These drugs show best result when taken in adjunction to diet, exercise and behaviour changes regimens. But these drugs are unable to cure obesity and weight is regained when discontinued. That’s why there is urge to search an anti-obesity medicine which can be used without any side effect. In present study anti-obesity effect of extract of Convolvulus pluricaulis is evaluated in mice feed with cafeteria diet (CD).  Obesity was induced in mice by feeding them a CD daily for 41 days in addition to normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 41, serum biochemical parameter were measured and animal were sacrificed using overdose of ether. The liver kidney, heart and spleen were removed and weighed immediately. CD may leads to obesity in mice however standard (Sibutramine). Treatment with extracts of Convolvulus pluricaulis caused changes in the blood parameter including decease levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TG but increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Methanolic extract of Convolvulus pluricaulis is a potential source of anti-obesity phytomedicine.


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