International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Formulation, evaluation and optimization of Granulating Agents on The Tablets Containing Poorly Water-Soluble Anti-HIV Drug
Manish K. Gupta, Avinash Gupta, Vijay Sharma, Ashutosh Sharma, Praveen Jaiswal
Elvitegravir have low dissolvability in aqueous media. Because of poor aqueous solvency, formulation improvement turns out to be very troublesome as this may reason for inconstancy in percent drug discharge. In such kind of conditions detailing synthesis and interaction have a definitive impact in concluding the % discharge in the dissolution medium. Nonetheless, Commercial products of drug Elvitegravir are accessible yet no work in regards to the formulation perspective is accounted for. In the current study, effect of granulating agent, upon Physico-substance parameter of Elvitegravir drug eventual outcome was contemplated. The medication Elvitegravir goes under class II classification for example low solubilization and poor penetrability. The medication discharge from becomes a rate limiting factor for their absorption. Thus, for advancement of retention of Elvitegravir, its solubilization in the media ought to get enhanced. For increment of Elvitegravir dissolvability and delivery, formulation variables factors assume a huge part. The significant target of this investigation was to assess the formulation variables such as granulating agent, for example, Gum Arabic, Pharma Sugar, PVP, Klucel, Hypromellose, Paste & Crayogel. According to the observed outcomes granulating agents like Gum Arabic, Paste, Pharma Sugar greatly influence the release of final product. As opposed to end result final product manufactured from pure drug, the products made from these excipients have significant impact on dissolution efficiency.

2. Proportional Assessment of Oral Tablets Having Complex of Cyclodextrin And BCS Class II Drugs
Avinash Gupta, Vijay Sharma, Ashutosh Sharma, Manish K. Gupta, Praveen Jaiswal
Today in Pharma area it turns into an extreme wok to make a formula of active molecules having poor water dissolvability. This explanation, that at present different beneficial active molecules don’t go to the market because of less disintegration and at last less bioavailability. According to the BCS classifications drugs like Elvitegravir which has a place with class II have the less solvency and great penetrability. In this way, it turns into a basic test for a formulator, to figure these medications having the whimsical or non-uniform medication discharge profile, drug retention influenced by the food, and from one patient to another and non-uniform bioavailability all through the GIT. In the Pharmaceutical business, Complexation of poor watery dissolvable API with the Cyclodextrin is most alluring strategy for upgrading the medication dissolution. This procedure of medication complexation is likewise promptly acknowledged by the various administrative specialists. Cyclodextrins can oblige different lipophilic medications in its hydrophobic focal hole. These are torus molded design having external hydrophilic surface. These mixtures make the buildings with the lipophilic medications without change in their lipophilic property and their pharmacological properties. In the current investigation solubilization and delivery properties of Elvitegravir was attempted to upgrade by complexation with the β CD and HPβCD. Extend of drug complexation was analyzed through phase solubility method. End results were manufactured using the drug cyclodextrin complex and investigate for its physicochemical properties.

3. Advancement and Characterization of Solid Dispersion Containing The Low Water Soluble Anti-HIV Drug
Vijay Sharma, Ashutosh Sharma, Manish K. Gupta, Avinash Gupta, Laxmikant Saini
Pharmacological efficiency of a functioning moiety influences the portion to direct, openness of active moiety at its receptor site and measure the quantity of active moiety for do the pharmacological impact. This kind of active structure is referred to as physiological organization capacity, Systematic administration ability or just bioavailability. For the inconstancy of medication, pharmacological result is connected with noticed restorative levels. Bioavailability is consequence of speed and extents (amount) of assimilation of substance moiety don’t alteration with connection to its portion sort. It is depicted as outcomes of the speed and amount of active moiety and excipients consumed from the sort of completed portion and arrive at the situating of the activity. The low bioavailability is shown as poor solubilization in watery media, a low release of active part in biological fluids, flimsiness of active part in the natural media, less infiltration from the natural membrane, associate initial Intensive metabolism. According to the BCS classifications drugs like Elvitegravir which has a place with class II have the less solvency and great penetrability. Thus, it turns into a critical challenge for a formulator, to plan these medications having the inconsistent or non-uniform medication discharge profile, drug assimilation influenced by the food, and from one patient to another and non-uniform bioavailability all through the GIT.

4. A Pharmacoepidemiologic Safety Study in Oral Cancer Patients in Mombasa, Kenya
Kasmani Riaz, Sachdeva Kamal, Singh Charanjeet
Introduction: Chemotherapy for malignant growth patients is a blended gift. It resembles a blade that cuts both ways, improving endurance rate in the patients, guaranteeing better personal satisfaction however at the same time likewise presenting them to different unfavorable medication responses. This orders customary and successive pharmacovigilance concentrates in oncology to protect the patients against the unfriendly impacts and give opportune administration of intricacies which follows. Methodology: The examination was embraced to notice the example of associated unfriendly medication responses with disease chemotherapy in oral malignant growth patients matured over twenty years, going to two tertiary consideration clinics around there. Information was examined utilizing SPSS for Windows, adaptation 16.0 Chicago (SPSS Inc.) and introduced as graphic measurements. Results: 64.36% patients created 15 distinct kinds of adverse drugs reactions. Alopecia was the most well-known adverse effects followed by nausea, vomiting, anemia, sickness and anorexia. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin routine was protected contrasted with others (p=0.6). Causality appraisal uncovered that a large portion of the adverse effects (82.5%) were in conceivable class of WHO causality evaluation scale. Conclusion: Oral cancer disease patients are powerless to an assortment of adverse effects. Pharmacovigilance of anticancer drugs should be explored further and utilization of careful steps should be escalated to diminish the rate of adverse effects.

5. An Investigation Comparing Laparoscopic And Open Inguinal Hernia Repair Outcome
Dr. Samir Kumar, Dr. Manish
Aim: To evaluate the comparative outcome of Laparoscopic technique versus open repair for inguinal hernia. Methods: A randomized prospective study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Narayan Medical  College and Hospital, Sasaram, Bihar, India, for 1 year to compare laparoscopic hernioplasty and Lichtenstein’s open mesh repair. The study consisted of 100 subjects with unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernia and they were randomly allocated into either group. Various parameters like duration of surgery, intra and post-operative complications, post-operative pain, recurrence, stay in the hospital and resumption of daily activities were compared. Results: Out of the 100 patients, 24 had bilateral inguinal hernia and the rest 76 had unilateral. 14 patients with bilateral hernia underwent laparoscopic repair and 10 underwent open mesh repair. 36 patients with unilateral hernia underwent laparoscopic hernioplasty and 40 underwent open mesh repair. The mean operative time for unilateral open hernioplasty was 46.86 mins and bilateral was 91.10 mins whereas, for unilateral laparoscopic hernioplasty it was 65.18 mins and bilateral was 120.55 mins. post-operative complications, like wound infection was noted in 14% (7 out of 50 patients) and 18% had seroma formation (9 out of 50 patients) in the open hernioplasty group. In laparoscopic hernioplasty group, 2% (1) had wound infection but, seroma formation was noted in 12% (6 out of 50 patients). Urinary retention was noted 20 % of open hernioplasty group (10 out of 50) and 6% of laparoscopic hernioplasty group (3 out of 50 patients). Conclusion: Laparoscopic hernioplasty is more beneficial than Lichtenstein’s open hernia mesh repair as it is safer, with faster recovery, lesser post-operative complications and reduced morbidity.

6. Prevalence of Foreign Bodies in Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Pathways in Subjects Reporting to ENT Department: A Prospective Study
Gosetti Sreenivasulu, Challa Venkatasubbaiah, Kundirthi Chaitanya Babjee
Background: Foreign bodies in the oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal pathways can have fatal impacts and are commonly seen in routine medical practice. Aim: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of foreign bodies in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal pathways in subjects reporting to the ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Department at this institute. Methods: The present prospective study assessed 100 subjects from both genders who presented to the Outpatient Department of ENT with foreign body obstruction in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal pathways. Results: More prevalence of foreign bodies was seen in male subjects compared to females from lower to middle-income groups and urban populations. The majority of the foreign bodies in the oropharyngeal pathway were single in number. Majority of the cases presented in the acute period with the most common foreign body being fish bone. Child subjects showed excessive salivation, food refusal, and excessive crying, whereas, adults with nasopharyngeal foreign bodies presented with dysphagia. Following treatment, the hospital stay duration was 24-48 hours. Conclusion: The study concludes that oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal foreign bodies are more commonly seen in adult males from the middle age group and urban population compared to females with the most commonly obstructed being chicken bone and fish bones.

7. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Chromolaena odorata Leaves Extract In Streptozotocin-Induced Rats
Abhilash Sankerneni, Madhukar Rao Polasani
The burden of diabetes on public health is multifaceted, ranging from consequences to the shortcomings of available treatments. It is necessary to develop a novel diabetes treatment made of plants that has fewer or no side effects. In several nations, Chromolaena odorata is widely used as a conventional antidiabetic medication. The aim of this investigation was to assess the antidiabetic potential of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract in rats that had been given diabetes. Rattusnovergicus was divided into six groups: normal control, diabetic control, glibenclamide treatment group, and three doses of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts (100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg BW). For a period of five weeks, an oral dose of Chromolaena odorata extract was administered daily. There was a comparison between the group’s animal body weight, blood glucose, insulin, and pathological alterations in the pancreas. The paired t-test or one-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data. According to our findings, there was a substantial (p<0.05) difference in body weight between the diabetes group and all Chromolaena odorata treatment groups. When comparing the animals in the glibenclamide and Chromolaena odorata group to the diabetic control group, there was a noticeable drop in blood glucose levels. When comparing the insulin levels of Chromolaena odorata groups of animals to those of diabetic control animals, a noteworthy elevation was also observed. Animals given Chromolaena odorata extract showed signs of regeneration in their beta cells. The ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves may have antidiabetic properties, according to the study’s result.

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