International Journal of

Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

e-ISSN: 0975 5160

p-ISSN: 2820-2651

Peer Review Journal

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1. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Fruit Pulp of Tamarindus indica on Motor Activity and Metabolism of the Gastrocnemius Muscle of Rats Treated with Fluoride.
Manjula M Reddy, Pratap Reddy Karnati
This study reports the protective effects of tamarind ingestion against fluoride induced changes on motor activity and metabolism of Gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of rats. The male Wistar rats were divided into four groups – control, fluoride treated i.p. (20 mg NaF/Kg bw) and Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus III -150mg/kg bw and IV- 300mg/kg bw) + i.p.fluoride (20 mg NaF/Kg bw) groups. The body weight, organo somatic index, motor activity and free radical scavenging enzymes activity in GM-(Superoxide dismutase-SOD, Catalase-CAT, Glutathione transferase-GST, Glutathione peroxidase-GPx,) decreased and Lipid peroxidation-LPO, Xanthine oxidase-XOD levels increased in fluoride treated rats whereas in tamarind+ fluoride treated rats (III and IV) the fluoride toxic effects were reversed to control values. Similarly beneficial effect was observed on metabolic and membrane bound enzymes like, Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), Sodium Potassium ATPase (Na+K+ ATPase) and Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) in gastrocnemius muscle tissue of tamarind ingested rats compared to fluoride treated rats. This study therefore showed the inhibitory effect of fluoride on motor activity and some enzymes associated with free radical scavenging, metabolism, energy production and membrane transport in GM. The toxic effect was found to be reduced more in the higher dose of tamarind (IV group -300mg/kgbw) than lower dose (III group – 150mg/kgbw). These findings indicate the protective role of tamarind on the gastrocnemius muscle against fluoride toxicity. The efficacy of tamarind fruit pulp could be due to its ability to bind to fluoride making it less available to the organ systems, as well as improve protein synthesis in the body which in turn could be associated to its composition- rich in amino acids and minerals.

Abstract Online: 6-August-15

2. Antihypertensive activity of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata herbs in wistar rats with a non-invasive method
Trilestari, Arief Nurrochmad, Ismiyati, Agustin Wijayanti, Agung Endro Nugroho
Hypertension is a main cause of approximately 66% of cardiovascular disease in 15 countries in the Asia Pacific region, including Indonesia. The high cost of treatment and the side effects of drugs are causes of the lack of public awareness in dealing with hypertension. In Indonesia, Andrographis paniculata [Burm.f.] Ness grows abundantly, and is widely used as a traditional medicine such as in treatment of hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata herbs (EEAP) in Wistar rats with a non-invasive method. In the study, the herb was extracted by 90% ethanol, and identified for its andrographolide, flavonoids and phenolics contents. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated using CODA “Non Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP) system with Volume Pressure Recording method”. High blood pressure was induced with an alpha adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine (0.9 mg/kgBW). EEAP at doses of 45, 90 and 180 mg/kgBW was evaluated for its antihypertension in comparison to nifedipine (10.8 mg/kgBW). Blood pressure measurements were performed 3 times i.e. before induced (baseline), 15 and 45 minutes after phenylephrine administration. Based on TLC-densitometric data, andrographolide, total flavonoids and total phenolics contents in EEAP were 12.85 ± 0.46%, 0.72 ± 0.01% and 1.66 ± 0.01%, respectively. EEAP exhibited a potent antihypertensive activity in phenylephrine-induced hypertensive rats. EEAP could decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressures up to  120% and 150%, respectively. EEAP fractions are potential to develop as a hypotensive agent in hypertension therapy.

Abstract Online: 6-August-15

3. Influence of Flavonoid-Rich Fruit and Vegetable Intake on Diabetics-Related Biomarkers
Chouba Ibtissem, Nessaibia Issam,Faci Hayette,Hamri Ahlem,Tahraoui Abdelkrim
Our problem is to evaluate the behavioral effects of infection and combination diabetes – infection in pregnant rats and the protective effect of an antioxidant on neurobehavioral alterations and complications. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 60 mg / kg. The administration of stresozotocine which is revealed, on one hand, the effects of of a single STZ i.p. injection on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, brain oxidative status and immune response in adult wistar rates, and the other hand the protective role of antioxidant (Hesperidin) on STZ-induced disorders. The hesperidins, a natural flavonoid was administered orally (gavages) at a dose of 100 mg / kg. This administration after WAS oxidative brain status showed an increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH).

Abstract Online: 6-August-15

4. Monoacyl Monogalactosyl Glycerol from Cycas lacrimans
Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Esperanza Maribel AgooChien-Chang Shen
Chemical investigation of the sarcotesta of Cycas lacrimans, a plant endemic to the Philippines led to the isolation of monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol (1) and 2α,18-dihydroxy-isopimara-7,15-diene (2). The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by mass spectrometry.  The structure of 2 was identified by comparison of its NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 6-August-15

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