1. Alterations of Apoptotic and Epigenetic Genes Associated with Gatifloxacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver
Solomon Oladapo Rotimi, Iyanuoluwa Temitayo Olugbemi and Oluwakemi Anuoluwapo Rotimi
In order to investigate the alterations in the expression of genes involved in epigenetics and apoptosis associated with gatifloxacin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver, adult rats were exposed to 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg gatifloxacin for five days orally. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed spectrophotometrically while the levels of expression of Bcl2l1, caspases 3, 8 and 9 as well as Dnmt1, Hdac5, Prdm2, Eid3, Suv39h1 and Ehmt2 were assessed using relative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress was associated with increase in the expression of proapoptotic genes. Gatifloxacin treatment also resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression level of DNA and histone methylating genes. These changes observed at the lowest dosage of 10 mg/kg showed that gatifloxacin exposure could result in apoptosis and trigger epigenetic changes in the liver.

2. Oral Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of the Aqueous and Methanol Leaves Extracts of Dissotis thollonii  Cogn. (Melastomataceae) in Balb/c Mice and Wistar Rats.
Herve Tchoumbou Tadjoua, Gilbert Ateufack, Olivette Laure Matafack Dongmo, Simjee Usman Shabana, William Nana Yousseu, Donatien Gatsing, Choudhary Iqbal Muhammad
In Africa, especially in Cameroon, the aqueous extract of the leaves of Dissotis thollonii has been used as folk medicine for thousands of years for the diarrhoeal and inflammatory diseases. However, there is no scientific evidence to verify the safety of its use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological potential of Dissotis thollonii through the acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies with Dissotis thollonii was done on Balb/c mice and wistar albino rats respectively. Anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were measured and histological sections of liver and kidneys were realized. During acute toxicity, a single oral dose of the extracts at 2000 and 5000 mg/kg produced no signs of toxicity such as general behavior change, important variation of body weight and no mortality (LD50 of the extract was ≥ 5000 mg/kg). However, in the sub-chronic toxicity studies, few modifications were observed in hematological, biochemical and histological parameters. We also observed variation in body weight, water and food intake in week 3 and 4 when compared with the control H20 and week 5 and 6 when compared with the satellite control. Histopathology showed the presence of disturbances at the dose of 500 mg/kg in the male. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaves of D. thollonii is safe when administered acutely (p.o) and aqueous extract could be moderately toxic at high doses when administered to Albino wistar rats daily for twenty-eight days.

3. Preventive Effect of the Whole Plant aqueous Extract of Eleusine indica(Linn) Gaertn. extract (Poaceae) against Mercuric Chloride-induced Hepato-nephrotoxicity in Rat
Tchoupou Tchinda Huguette,  Ngueguim Tsofack Florence, Gounoue Kamkumo Raceline Dimo Theophile

The entire plant of Eleusine indica is used in Cameroonian folk medicine to treat several diseases including renal and hepatic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of Eleusine indica aqueous extract against mercuric chloride induced- hepatic and renal damages in rats. Animals were divided into a normal control group, receiving 0.9 % NaCl subcutaneously (s.c) at the dose of 10 mL/kg, a negative control group receiving HgCl2 (0.02 mg/kg, s.c) and three others groups receiving per os the verapamil (0.5 mg/kg) or the plant extract (100 or 200 mg/kg) simultaneously with HgCl2.  After 30 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed. The blood was collected for the assessment of the serum activities of ALT, AST and ALP, serum levels of total bilirubin, total proteins, albumin, lipid profile parameters, creatinine, urea, uric acid, Na+ and K+. MDA, SOD, catalase and GSH levels were measured in liver and kidney. HgCl2 induced marked hepatotoxicity as evidenced by significant elevation in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, with significant reduction of HDL, total proteins and albumin as compared to controls, while nephrotoxicity was evidenced by significant elevation in serum levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and K+, with significant reduction of Na+ as compared to controls. MDA was significantly increased, when SOD, catalase and GSH were significantly decreased in HgCl2 injected groups as compared to controls. Eleusine indica aqueous extract prevented various modifications of biochemical and oxidative markers. This study shows that Eleusine indica aqueous extract prevents HgCl2 induced-hepato-nephrotoxicity, probably due to its antioxidant activities. These results justify the traditional use of this plant in the management of kidneys and liver problems.

4. Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitors On Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Patil T.R, Patil ST, Patil S, Patil A
Diabetes mellitus [DM] is a chronic metabolic disorder with its associated complications. Despite the plethora of available antidiabetic drugs to treat DM search continues to discover newer drugs. Proton pump inhibitors [PPIs] are the drugs which have been tested by researchers in animal models and in clinical set up to treat DM. They appeared to be promising drugs to reduce hyperglycemia. They can be  used as supportive drugs along with the primary antidiabetic drugs. PPIs enhance rebound gastrin release, increase beta cell mass and insulin release. They are not hypoglycemic drugs. They reduce blood sugar by increase in gastrin  and GLP-1 levels, decrease in  ghrelin levels, reduced appetite, delayed gastric emptying and enhanced satiety through action on CNS.PPIs are the inhibitors of organic cation tansporters (OCTs) for which metformin is the substrate and hence the plasma levels of metformin are increased. The potential and  safety of PPIs in treatment of DM should be evaluated by long term clinical trials