1. An RCT: To Evaluate the Clinical Characteristics of Patients Having Spinal Anaesthesia with Intrathecal Bupivacaine and Clonidine, as well as Intrathecal Bupivacaine and Fentanyl.
Satish Kumar
Aim: The aim of this study to assess the clinical profile of patients undergoing spinal Anesthesia with intrathecal bupivacaine with clonidine and intrathecal bupivacaine with fentanyl. Methods: A prospective double blind randomized controlled study was conducted in the Department of anaesthesiology, Katihar medical college Hospital, Katihar, Bihar, India.for 1 year. 110 adult patients were randomly divided on an alternative basis into two groups of 55 each. Group A-Bupivacaine plus clonidine group. Group B-Bupivacaine plus fentanyl group. Patients with ASA grade 1 and 2 patients and age group of 18 –72 yrs. Those patients scheduled to undergo elective lower abdominal, lower extremity, gynaecological or urological surgeries under subarachnoid block were included in this study. Patients belonging to group ‘A’ received 3 ml (15 mg) of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% plus 1 µg.kg-1 of clonidine. Patients of group ‘B’ received 3 ml (15 mg) of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% plus (25 µg) of fentanyl. After injection, patient was immediately turned to supine position. Results: Majority of patients in the both the groups belonged to the group 30 to 40 years 34.54%. The number of males 43.64% and females 56.36%. Majority of female patients in the both the groups belonged to the group 160 to 170 cms and males 171 to 175 cms, Samples were height matched. Most of the patients 41.82 percent from gynaecology surgery followed by lower limb surgery 33.63 percent and  Lower Abdominal Surgery 24.55 percent. Conclusion: We concluded that the administration of local anaesthetics in combination with opioids intrathecally is an established technique for managing postoperative pain following abdominal, pelvic, thoracic or orthopaedic procedures on lower extremities. Local anaesthetics with opioids demonstrate significant synergy.

2. Experimental Evaluation of Nephroprotective Effect of Punica granatum Peel Extract aganist Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats.
Shakira Fathima Syeda, Mohammed Mohsin, T Sunitha, J Margaret Viola, G Jyothsna
Nephrotoxicity is a disease characterised by derangement in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism which is caused by the complete or relative insufficiency of insulin secretions. Long- term complications from high blood sugar can develop heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eyesight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential Nephroprotective activity of Punica granatum peel extract in Gentamicin induced Nephrotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups, Group I Normal control group received distilled water 5ml/kg body weight orally daily, Group II were treated with Gentamicin 100mg/kg body weight induced nephrotoxicity administered i.p daily for 8 days. Group III Gentamicin 100mg/kg administered i.p for 8 days and Punica granatum extract 100 mg/kg administered orally daily for 10 days. Group IV Gentamicin 100mg/kg administered i.p. for 8 days and  Punica  granatum extract 200 mg/kg administered orally daily for 10 days & Group  V treated with Punica granatum peel extract 200mg/kg alone for 8 days administered respectively. Punica granatum extract had shown Significant in protecting the gentamicin- induced renal failure in rats. The result of this study demonstrates the potentiality of Punica granatum peel extract as a source of a Nephroprotective activity. Observations were recorded and results were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). P<0.001was considered highly significant.

3. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries to the Permanent Anterior Teeth Among 7-12 year Old Schoolchildren of Darbhanga Town.
Shagufta Syreen, Ahtasham Anwar, Bimleshwar Kumar
A traumatic dental injury has become a major key hole of a public health. Before dealing with such problem its extent, type and severity of injury should be kept in mind. Aims And Objective: To assess the prevalence and distribution of dental injuries to anterior teeth among 7-12 years old school children in Darbhanga town. Material And Methods: Total of 200 participants was taken. Information regarding sex, age, cause, number & type of teeth were recorded. Result: The Prevalence rate of trauma was found to be 14%. Also, the prevalence rate was found more in male as compared to female. Maximum number of trauma was found in the age group of 11-12 years. Conclusion: A special consideration must be given to traumatic dental injuries as it may disturb the masticatory function and phonation. Also, it might affects the physical appearance of a well being. Educational programmes must be implemented by keeping in mind to prevent dental trauma so that the prevalence is reduced in children. The programs should be conducted in schools and in community. For managing traumatized teeth, educational program plays a major role in reducing the prevalence rate.

4. Common  Parental  and  Physician  Concerns  in  Neonates.
Paramesh Pandala, Rakesh kotha, Kalyan Chakravarthy Konda, Alimelu Maddireddy
The happiest moment in a person’s life is when a child is born, but ironically, at the same time parents may be stressed with many concerns pertaining to their child’s care. Experienced grandparents may be involved and assist in developing confidence in some families regarding baby’s care, but it is the responsibility of the Paediatrician to address parental apprehension, guide them and help establish and develop a bond and confidence between mother infant dyad. In this brief article, we will discuss about common neonatal conditions of a healthy baby which may mimic pathology and cause unwanted fear in parents.

5. Comparative Study of FNAC and Trucut Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Palpable Breast Lumps.
Rajan, Ashwani Kumar, Manjit Singh Khalsa, Ashwathi Menon
Introduction: Definitive diagnosis of patients who present with palpable breast lump is the need of the hour now a days. The method must be accurate, easy to perform and acceptable to the patient, can be carried out in a busy clinic setting and must not require too much preparation or expensive equipment. Aims and Objectives: To compare fine-needle aspiration cytology and tru-cut biopsy in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of palpable breast lumps and to analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of fine-needle aspiration cytology and Trucut biopsy. Materials and Method: It is a study conducted on 100 patients with palpable breast lump underwent FNAC and Trucut biopsy and compared with final histopathological confirmation. Results: There were 100 patients who presented with breast lump during the study period. Out of a total 100 breast lump study, final diagnosis was 28 benign breast lump and 72 malignant breast lumps. Sensitivity of FNAC and TRUCUT biopsy were 94.4% and 100% respectively. While TRUCUT was more accurate when compared to FNAC. Conclusion: Trucut biopsy is at par or superior to the FNAC by accurately detecting malignant lesions, providing information regarding local invasion, hormone receptors, and assist in immunohistochemistry, in turn helping direct appropriate treatment.