1. Current Advances in Modulation of ABC Transporter-mediated Multidrug Resistance in Cancer [Invited Review] Amit K. Tiwari , Kamlesh Sodani, Zhe-Sheng Chen
In the last few decades, cancer chemotherapy has seen major medical advances. However, multidrug resistance (MDR), due to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a major impediment in the process of cancer treatment. ABC transporters lead to MDR by actively effluxing various amphipathic compounds, causing decreased intracellular drug accumulation in a patient’s tumor cells. Conventionally, pharmacological development of synthetic molecules or identification of natural products that block ABC transporter-mediated efflux have been sought to combat MDR. Although,the strategy is attractive due to its simplicity, clinical success with these chemosensitizers has been marginal. Therefore, newer approaches to identify or synthesize one or more ABC transporters, such as selective resensitizers with limited nonspecific toxicity, have been undertaken. This review briefs the current advances in modulators and strategies being applied to resensitize chemotherapeutics in ABC transporters-mediated MDR tumors.
2. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Ethanolic Extract of Schrebera swietenioides Roxb. Root Hansraj Manda, Baboo K. Rao, Yashwant, Gopalan N.Kutty, Surendra K Swarnkar
Ethanolic extract of Schrebera swietenioides roxb. (SSE) root was prepared by soxhlation method and screened for its in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (acute, chronic) and antipyretic activity in wistar rats. Antioxidant assay was performed by using DPPH, ABTS and Lipid peroxidation assay methods. In antioxidant assay, % inhibition and IC50 was calculated. SSE produced 50% inhibition (IC50) at 1.7 μg in DPPH, 4.35μg in ABTS, 23.53μg in lipid peroxidation assay and shown more potent antioxidant activity compare to standard compound. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by using carrageenan induced paw edema and complete Freund’s adjuvant arthritis in rats. In these assays, SSE showed dose dependant inhibition in paw edema. Maximum inhibition was found at 300 mg /kg oral dose of SSE in rats. In Carrageenan induced paw edema SSE showed maximum 67.81% inhibition and in freund’s adjuvant arthritis it showed maximum 50% inhibition at 300 mg/kg oral dose in rats, which was significantly different from control (p<0.05). SSE also showed dose dependant decrease in body temperature in brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. SSE significantly decrease in body temperature (p<0.05) at 300 mg/kg compare to control. Present study showed that SSE had significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.
3. Effects of radiation on Protein and DNA content in Genistein treated mice liver Ajay Gaur*, Yashwant, Birendra Srivastava, Jawed Akhtar
Genistein is a soya isoflavone, which is found naturally in legumes, such as soybeans and chickpeas. The intraperitoneal administration of optimum dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 24 hrs and 15 minutes of irradiation (8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.02 Gy/min) recovered the protein content (by 28.63 ± 1.4349%) and the DNA content (by 21.61 ± 8.1863%) in experimental group as compared to control group in liver of Swiss albino mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) = 1.24. The decrease of protein amount after irradiation may be due to its lysis by gamma-radiation or may be at the synthesis level or it may be due to the depression of enzymes involved in the activation of amino acids and transferring to tRNA or by the inhibition of release of synthesized polypeptides from polysomes. The decrease in DNA content after irradiation is due to an inhibition of replication of this compound in nucleus and accumulation of ribonucleotide in the cytoplasm, which is based on the inability, of irradiated cell to reduce ribonucleotide to DNA in the nucleus. The results indicate that Genistein against radiation effect may pave way to the formulation of medicine in radiotherapy for normal tissue and possible against radiomimetic drug induced toxicity.
4. In-vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Leaves of Spinacia oleracae Linn. U.K.Patil, Shuchi Dave, Amrita Bhaiji, Uttam S.Baghel, S.K.Yadav,Vijay K.Sharma
The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of crude extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn. and different extract namely fresh juice extract, petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract using Pheretima posthuma as test worms. Different concentration 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 50mg/ml of fresh juice extract and methanolic extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn. Each extract was studied which determined time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Both the extract performed invitro anthelmintic activity. Albendazole was used as standard reference and saline water as control. The result of present study revealed that the fresh juice extract may show more potent anthelmintic activity than methanolic extract. Further studies are in process to isolate the active principle responsible for the activity.
5. Antidepressant Activity of Juglans regia L . Fruit Extract B.P.Rath, D.Pradhan
In the present study the effect of Juglans regia fruit extract has been reported in animal models of depression. Forced swimming test and tail suspension test were used for assessing antidepressant activity. The extract was administered in doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight. Both the doses significantly decreased duration of immobility in both models of depression. The effect of extract was less significant than standard drug fluoxetine. Juglans regia fruit may exert antidepressant activity due to the presence of omega 3 fatty acid in extract.