Volume2,Issue2

1. Anti-Diarrohoeal activities of the methanolic root bark extract of Cochlospermum planchoni (Hook f)
Ezeja  M. I.  and  Anaga  A.O.
Abstract
Antidiarrhoeic properties of the methanolic root bark extract of Cochlospermum planchonii was studied using gastric emptying time (GET) in rats, castor oil induced enteropooling and charcoal plug transit time in mice. Diphenoxylate (5mg/kg) and atropine (3 mg/kg) were used as the reference drugs.The extract of C. planchonii significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the rate of gastric emptying into the duodenum in a dose dependent manner. The extract (1000 mg/kg) was more effective than diphenoxylate (5 mg/ kg) used in the study.The extract also markedly inhibited the movement of charcoal plug in all doses used dose dependently. Oral administration of the extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and the reference drug diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the distance covered by the charcoal plug in the intestine of mice with the highest dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) producing similar percent inhibition of the charcoal plug with the reference drug by 44% and 44% respectively. In castor oil induced enteropooling, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the intra luminal fluid content in mice. The highest reduction was recorded at 1000 mg/kg of the extract which was similar to that of the reference drug atropine (3 mg/kg). In conclusion, the methanolic root bark extract of C. planchonii possessed antidiarrhoeal property comparable to diphenoxylate and atropine by reduction of gastrointestinal motility and fluid secretion.

2. Role of Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Diabetic Patients associated with Hyperlipidemia in Chhattissgarh Region: A Biochemical Analysis
Murugan, D.K. Shrivastava, S.K.B. Patil, Lanjhiyana Sweety, Lanjhiyana Sanjay Kumar, Garabadu Debapriya, Ahirwar Bharti
Abstract
Diabetes has not yet been systematically studied and the role of Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on diabetes associated hyperlipidemia gains less attention in Chhattisgarh region of India. Hence, the role of HbA1c in diabetes associated hyperlipidemia in Chhattisgarh was investigated.  The study was undertaken including both male and female subjects and the fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed in the blood. The results showed that the fasting, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c, TC, TG and LDL levels increased significantly in diabetes associated hyperlipidemia.  However,  there  was  significant  decrease  in  HDL  levels  in  diabetes  associated  hyperlipidemia. Therefore, the present study leads to a conclusion that a good glycemic control by monitoring HbA1c would be the useful tool to reduce the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

3. Acute and Sub acute Toxicity Study of Ayurvedic Formulation (AYFs) Used For Migraine Treatment
Prakash Vaidya Balendu, Saraf Madhusudan, Chandurkar Nitin
Abstract
A combination of five classical ayurvedic formulations (Narikela Lavana, Sootashekhara Rasa, Sitopalad Churna, Rason Vati and Godanti Mishran) has been employed as prophylactic remedy for migraine. These ayurvedi formulations (AYFs) contain certain Bhasma and plant materials. An investigation was initiated to evaluate safety profile of these AYFs in Sprague Dawley rats and Swiss Albino mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies were done after ingestion of 5 g/kg of AYFs in a day in both the animal species. Sub acute toxicity studies were carried in five different groups in which AYFs was administrated in various doses ranging from 1.47 – 6.4 g/kg for mice and 0.7 – 7.45 g/kg for rats. The highest dose were 10 times higher that the recommended human dose Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals The AYFs was well tolerated and no toxic manifestations were seen in any animal. Mortality observed in high dose groups; 4% in rats and 6% in mice was not related to treatment. The AYFs was found to be safe in animals. However, chronic toxicity studies are required to know the long term safety of these AYFs.

4. Synthesis and evaluation of Anti-ulcerogenic studies of some novel 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 3-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazole
Muthumani, C.A. Suresh kumar, R. Meera S.Venkataraman1, N.Chidambaranathan, P. Devi, A. Riyas, K. Ezlilan, Manojith, Neck Mohammed, N.Ganasekaran
Abstract
Synthesis of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives of diclofenac acid along with their derivatives has been done. The entire synthesized compounds were characterized by UV, IR and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The Synthetic compound 4c showed reduction in ulcerogenic activity (1.23 ± 0.35), and compounds 4d, 4f, 6a, 6c and 6e at 10mg/kg therapeutic dose on stomach was negligible compared to drug Diclofenac potassium at the same dose levels

5. Heavy metal distribution in soils and health implications: An appraisal of Umuahia metropolis, Nigeria
Onyegbule A.F., Okorie D.E. and Onyegbule C.E.
Abstract
The distribution of heavy metals in soils of Umuahia metropolis was investigated.  This became necessary as the total content of heavy metals informs the available or extractable content, which is of interest to man’s health safety. The distribution of total lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in five representative surface soil samples in the metropolis was studied. The total contents of Pb and Mn were found to range from 30 to 580ppm and 199.8 to 792.9ppm respectively in the samples investigated.  Cu and Fe were found to range from 213 to 411ppm and 34,100 to 45,416ppm respectively. No Ni was detected in the samples analyzed. Comparison of the data obtained to those recorded in literature showed that the levels of lead and Copper were very high and exceeded the reported ranges. But Mn and Fe, although high, fell within the range reported in literature. Comparison was also done on safe levels to ascertain the extent of contamination or heavy metal status of the metropolis. This is because the use of soil archives or data provides the opportunity to retrospectively analyze changes in soil properties and heavy metal status1; and also present the short and long term health implications arising from the contamination of plants, the food chain, ground water and ultimately man. A review of the potential health risks of these metals in soils was done.

6. Anti-Cancer Activity of Methanol Extract of Root Bark of Erythrina variegata linn.
N. Baskar, B.Parimala Devi and R. Mohan Kumar
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of root bark of Erythrina variegata (MEEV) against Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss Albino mice. DAL cells were injected intraperitonially (106 cells) to the mice. Two days after cells injection the animals were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of MEEV for 8 days. 5- fluorouracil (20 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. On day 11, cancer cell number, packed cell volume, decrease in tumour weight of the mice, increase in life span and haematological parameters were evaluated and compared with the same parameters in control. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumour-induced mice after treatment with MEEV. The haematological parameters were also normalized by MEEV in tumour-induced mice. These observations are suggestive of the protective effect of MEEV against Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL).