1. In-Vivo Anti-Oxidant of “ATH-2K13” in Normal and CCl4 Induced Rats
S.Divya Teja.Banda, Firasat Ali, D. Suneetha.
To evaluate the in-vivo antioxidant potential of poly herbal formulation ATH-2K13 against CCl4 induced toxicity in rats. All the animals are divided in to 5 groups and in each group consist of six animals each. All the animals were treated with the poly herbal formulation ATH-2K13 for 7 days. The toxicity was induced to the animals with the intraperitoneal injection of carbon chloride (ccl4). The treatment of animals with the poly-herbal formulation may produce its effectives when compared with the control. The two doses of the poly herbal formulation were 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg. The present study reveals that the present drug shows significant in-vivo anti-oxidant activity.

2. Sub-Cellular Correlation of Nitrite in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Leaves and Nitrosamine Toxicology in Wistar Rats
Efuruibe A. A., Akpabio C. J., Maduagwu E. N.
The aim of this study was to determine the nitrite levels in the sub-cellular fractions of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) leaves containing chloroplast, mitochondria and in the cytosol respectively and to their contribution in the causation of liver toxicity in rats exposed to N-nitrosamine precursors. The design of this experiment consisted of three animal groups. The first group was administered with dimethylamine hydrochloride plus sodium nitrite (DMA.HCL + NaNO2), the second group was administered with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) only and the third group (control) was given distilled water. The methods used included cell fractionation, tissue homogenization and centrifugation, spectrophotometric analysis, enzymatic determination and histopathology. Nitrite levels were estimated at 6.08 ± 0.92, 4.06 ± 1.65 and 1.29 ± 1.66µg/200g of cassava leaf tissue in chloroplasmic, mitochondrial and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions respectively. Both the NaNO2 dose regime and the combined dose of DMA.HCL and NaNO2, at P- value 0.05, caused significant increases in GGT, ALP, AST and ALT levels in serum. The histopathological study of the rat liver for DMA.HCL + NaNO2 administration showed severe portal and central venous congestion while the NaNO2 administration revealed a mild periportal cellular infiltration. This study shows that there is a correlation of nitrite in the chloroplast, mitochondria and cytosol sub-cellular fractions of cassava leaves and administration of nitrite dietary level in cassava leaves and dimethylamine hydrochloride produced acute synergistic toxicity in the liver.

3. Probiotics: A Medieval To Modern Era Prospective
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Hitesh Verma, Vidhu Aeri, Yashwant
Probiotics have been perceived as a solution to many of the life style related problems. In modern era the quality of water and food supply may affect the intestinal micro flora. Chlorinated water and preservatives added to foods may lead to an alteration in the normal micro biota of intestine. Probiotics, however, lead to reversal of this altered microbial picture back to normal. They tend to maintain the delicate balance exiting between the gastro intestinal tract and the immunological system of the body. Whenever this balance is disturbed, a disease develops. Probiotics competitively inhibit the over stimulation of immune system by pathogenic bacteria by adhering themselves to the gastro intestinal mucosa in place of pathogenic bacteria and thus inhibiting their colonization. They have proved to be beneficial in the case of allergies/eczema, diarrhoea, hyperlipidaemia, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, liver cirrhosis, gastric ulcer, hypertension, inflammation, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, peptic ulcer and cancer etc. It is also beneficial in case of antibiotic resistance or antibiotic associated side effects. The present review deals with the updated information about the role of probiotics in health and disease.