Volume5,Issue4

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1. Behavioural and Neuroprotective Effect of Fish Oil on MPTP Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Mice
Elandevan.C.K, Sylvia Santhakumari.A, Nirmala.P
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc that provide innervations in the striatum. The present work was focused on the neuroprotective effect of fish oil (Omega-3 fatty acids) against experimentally (1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine) induced Parkinson’s disease in mice, by analyzing the behavioural studies. Rota rod test, Hang test, measurement of fore paw stride length during walking test and Photo-actometer tests proved that 5% and 10% fish oil in mice improved the performance against MPTP administration and the results were significant (p<0.05). Compared to the control group 5%  fish oil treated group shows improved behavioural activity – Rota rod test 71%; Hang test 70%, measurement of fore paw stride length during walking test 34% and Photo-actometer tests 14%. The 10% fish oil treated group shows Rota rod test 86%; Hang test 87%, measurement of fore paw stride length during walking test 64%  and Photo-actometer tests 18.45%. The study evidence that fish oil is a neuroprotective against MPTP induced in mice.

2. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cissus Pallida in Acute and Sub-Acute Models
Tadiparthi Jayaprakash, SriGeetha Koduri, Ashok Krishnan S, Venkatesh K, Firasat Ali
Abstract
The present study is carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of Ethanolic extract of Cissus Pallida (EECP). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using Egg Albumin, Turpentine Oil & Formaldehyde as phlogistic agents. The animals were treated with doses 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of extract and Diclofenac Sodium at a dose of 10mg/kg is used as a standard drug. The EECP showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner in all the models when compared with the standard treatment. The extract (400mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity i.e., 67.46%, 68.75%, 69.43% (P<0.001) than the standard Diclofenac 64.50%, 65.28%, 64.77% in Egg albumin, Turpentine oil and Formaldehyde induced methods respectively. Based on the above results, we conclude that the EECP has significant anti-inflammatory activity and might prove efficacious for further design and development of agents with significant biological activity.

3. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Commiphora Against CCl(4) -Induced Liver Injury in Adult Male Albino Rats
Nermeen A. M. Hassan, Omayma K. Helala, Aisha El-Sayed Mansya
Abstract
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatocyte-destructive agent. Commiphora mukul is a medicinal plant found to be effective in the treatment of a variety of disorders. Aim of the work is to study the effect of Commiphora extract on liver injury induced by the administration of CCl4 in rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided randomly into four groups. Group I (control group), group II (received CCl4 for 2 weeks), and group III and group IV, which received 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, of Commiphora extract orally before the administration of CCl4. Two weeks after the administrations of CCl4, animals were killed, and the livers were removed and processed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Liver functions were measured. The results revealed that a low dose of Commiphora extract did not lead to any improvement; while a high dose of Commiphora showed its potential to protect against CCI4  induced hepatotoxicity by controlling the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase enzymes (ALP) and  also hepatic lobules regenerate to their normal architecture with proliferating bile ductules in the portal tract. Some hepatic lobules still showed vacuolation and necrosis of their hepatocytes. It could be concluded that,  Higher doses of Commiphora extract protects against CCl4-induced liver injury.

4. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Potentiate Paracetamol Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Mohamed A Lebda, Nabil M Taha, Mahdy A Korshom, Abd El-Wahab A Mandour, Raghda I Goda
Abstract
Paracetamol, the most commonly sold over-the-counter antipyretic analgesic, is generally considered harmless at therapeutic doses. However, paracetamol overdose causes severe and sometimes fatal hepatic damage in humans and experimental animals. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Zingiber Officinale (ginger) powder on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were given ginger 1% orally in the diet 7 days before induction of hepatotoxicity of paracetamol (1g/kg bwt) orally for 21 days. Paracetamol induced severe liver damage as assessed by increased serum liver marker enzymes, hypoalbuminemia with hyperglobulinemia. Paracetamol induced hepatic lipid peroxidation with reduction in reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. Also, paracetamol caused changes in serum lipid profile. Unfortunately, away from general notion, ginger did not protect paracetamol induced hepatic injuries but potentiate the toxic effects of paracetamol on liver as evident by highly increase in serum globulin fractions with decreased serum albumin, increased serum activities of AST, LDH, ALP and GGT, reduced hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, GR and GPX) and reduced glutathione level. In conclusion, ginger fails to protect rats against paracetamol induced chronic hepatotoxicity but enhance its adverse effects on liver.

5. Pharmacological Evaluation of Analgisic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Ricinus Communis Root Bark
D.Rajeshkumar, V.Nagachaitanya, G.Manasa, Amv.Usharani, K.Nagaraju
Abstract
The objective of present investigation is to evaluate analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Ricinus Communis root bark in mice. Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Ricinus Communis root bark at a dose of 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug diclofenac at a dose of 50mg/kg. Albino mice of either sexes of six number in each group was undertaken for study of evaluated by eddy’s hot plate method  & tail immersion method.The results indicated that the extract exhibited considerable anti-nociceptive activity against the two methods of pain in mice. The aqueous extract of Ricinus Communis root bark has potential anti-nociceptive activity.  It may be due to presence of saponin, steroids & alkaloids in it.

6. Altered Brain Monoamines Metabolism in Thioacetamide Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats
Darakhshan M SaleemI, Saida Haider, Darakhshan J Haleem, Shafaque M, Moona Mehboob Khan
Abstract
Altered monoamines metabolism has been reported in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In order to evaluate this thioacetamide (TAA) was administered to induce hepatic encephalopathy due to fulminant hepatic failure in rats. Methods:  Female Albino Wistar rats (200-250 gm body wt) were selected and divided into two groups (n=6 in each group). Saline plus saline (controls) and TAA plus saline .TAA at a dose of 550 mg/kg was injected for two consecutive days in TAA plus saline treated rats. Brain concentrations of indoleamines, dopamine and their metabolites were measured by HPLC-EC. Brain concentrations of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) were not significant. Whereas, its precursor Tryptophan (TRP) in the brain was significant (p<0.05), its metabolite 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was significantly increased in TAA plus saline treated rats when compared to controls (p<0.01). Similarly concentrations of Dopamine (DA) were not increased in the brain. However, its metabolites dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homo vanilinic Acid (HVA) was significantly increased in TAA plus saline (p<0.01). In plasma, TRP level was increased in TAA plus saline treated rats (p<0.05). Liver TRP levels were decreased in TAA plus saline treated rats when compared to controls but this decreased was insignificant. Liver total TRP and TRP pyrrolase apo enzyme activity were significantly decreased in TAA plus saline treated rats when compared to controls (p<0.05). Food intake was decreased on day 1 and on day 2 in TAA plus saline treated rats when compared to controls (p<0.05). Water intake was significantly decreased on day 1and on day 2 in when compared to controls (p<0.01). The results of this study show that an increased concentration of TRP, 5-HIAA and HVA, suggesting an increased turn over of 5-HT and DA in TAA plus saline treated rats.

7. Elevated Cadmium Exposure Associated with Oxidative Stress and Oxidative DNA Damage in Population of Cadmium-Contaminated Area
Wasana Kayankarnna, Duengchewan Thessomboon, Sukumarn Niyomtam, Patchanrin Pingmuangkaew, Prapa Nunthawarasilp, Surapon Tangvarasittichai
Abstract
We examined the association of elevated cadmium exposure with chronic kidney disease (CKD), increased oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in a total of 129 study residents 13 cadmium-contaminated villages. In bivariate correlation, elevated urinary cadmium excretion was significantly correlated with creatinine, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and total antioxidant level. Overall findings showed that elevated urinary cadmium excretion appeared to increase risk of oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage and CKD; ORs and 95% CIs were 2.64 (1.44, 4.82) and 2.18 (1.22, 3.89), respectively, after adjusting for CKD and other co-variables. Our study revealed that elevated cadmium exposure induces increased oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage concomitant with CKD in these populations of environmentally contaminated area, might be increased in morbidity and mortality of all degenerative diseases in the future.

8. A Detailed Study on Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome and It’s Treatment With Natural Products
Nagarathna P.K.M, Preethy Rachel Rajan, Raju Koneri.
Abstract
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The common symptoms of PCOS are irregular menstrual cycles, anovulation, infertility, hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, acne, the scalp hair thinning, functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, peripheral insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity. In this review the signs and symptoms, reasons for elevated levels of hormones and management of PCOS with allopathic medications like Clomiphene citrate, Tamoxifen, Metformin  etc  and natural remedies  using Liquorice, Aloe vera, Cinnamon, N-acetyl cysteine etc are  discussed in brief.

9. Cardioprotective Activity of Leaves of Cassia Tora on Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Injury
Nagarathna P. K. M, S. Praveen Kumar, Sudheer.M
Abstract
Cassia tora is an herbal medicinal plant and it is used to cure different disorders. The present study was involved in cardioprotective activity of leaves of Cassia tora on ISO induced myocardial injury. Male wistar rats are divided into five groups of six animals each. All the grouped rats were pre-treated with the extract and standard (propranolol) either s.c. or orally for 1 week. Then, they were given 5.25 and 8.5 mg/kg isopreterenol  s.c. on two consecutive days. Early treatment with extract of Cassia tora 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg showed significant decrease in level of serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), changes  in the oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused by ISO (5.25 and 8.5). the defence  action of leves of Cassia tora concluded by observing histopatholgy and are more consistant at 200mg/kg.  Hence, we conclude that pretreatment with extract of leaves of Cassia tora more barrier aganist the ISO induced myocardial injury.

10. Anti Hyperlipidemic Activity of Flavonoid of Cassia tora
Nagarathna P. K. M, Honi yalu, sudheer M.
Abstract
Since the advent of modern drug treatments, traditional medicine has greatly receded in occidental societies.  Moreover, only a limited number of medicinal plants have received detailed scientific scrutiny thereby prompting the World Health Organisation to recommend that this area be comprehensively investigated.  Cassia tora Linn is used extensively in various parts of the world against a wide range of ailments, the synergistic action of its metabolite production being most probably responsible for the plant’s beneficial effects.  This study was focused to know antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Cassia tora on dietetical model. Thirty male rats are divided into five groups, each group contain six animals. First group served as a normal control, which receieve the normal diet. The second group receive the high cholesterol diet, third one high cholesteric diet and standard drug atorvastatin (10mg/kg), fourth group receive high cholesteric diet and 100mg/kg extract of cassia tora, last one receive the rich fat food with 200mg/kg extract of cassia tora for 26 days. Serum levels of total proteins, albumin, (AST) and piruvic (ALT) transaminases. Total cholesterol, HDL-, LDL- VLDL- and triglycerides. Extract  of leaves of Cassia tora treated group showed significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT,ALP, an increase in HDL-cholesterol, Albumin, Total protein, and further was conformedby histopathologiacal studies.