Volume6,Issue1

1. Balanites aegyptiaca Carbohydrate Fractions and the Effect of Aqueous Extract of Mesocarp on Some Blood Parameters of CCl4 Induced Rats
Salihu-Lasisi, M., Akpabio C. J., Ogunsola M.O.
Abstract
The mesocarp of fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca was analyzed for its biochemical constituents with estimation of different fractions of carbohydrates present in the fruit mesocarp. The fruits mesocarp was then administered orally to rats to assess blood parameters in CCl4 liver damaged rats. White albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) assigned to four (4) groups containing fifteen (15) rats each were used to assess the effect of the aqueous extract of the mesocarp of the fruit Balanites aegyptiaca on the CCl4 induced rats. Group 1 are the normal control (Nc) and group 2 are the diseased control (Dc), while groups 3 and 4 are the test groups of animals administered orally with 0.08mg of raw (Tr) extract and 0.19mg of concentrated (Tc) extracts per kg body weight respectively on daily basis. The result of the proximate composition revealed that the fruit mesocarp has 36.42% carbohydrates with 50.89% of it as reducing sugar.  Compared to the controls, blood cells of the test rats revealed that there is significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of PCV, RBC, haemoglobin, MCH, MCHC and neutrophils count of the Balanites aegyptiaca treated rats. This indicates that in a diseased state, this fruits contains nutrients which can assist to restore and maintain biological functions of the body, if regularly consumed.

2. Effect of Biochemical Parameters in Cetylmyristeolate Treatment Against Freund’s Adjuvant Induced Arthritis Model
Kayalvizhi M.K., Vanitha Samuel, P. Nirmala
Abstract
The current research was to evaluate the effect of Cetylmyristeolate (CMO) in Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats by analyzing its biochemical parameters. The experimental study was performed  on Wister rats, Freund’s complete adjuvant  was injected to induce arthritis in tibiotarsal joint (IA), CMO-500mg; 1g and CMO 100mg + MSM 200mg + glucosamine 500mg /day for 21 days were given. Blood was collected by intraocular puncture on days 1,7,14 and 21and ESR (mm), serum CRP (mg/l) and Rheumatoid factor (IU/ml) were studied, the results showed that marked reduction of arthritic and inflammatory effect by CMO- 500mg/day and 1gm/day as well as the combination of 100mg/day + glucosamine 500mg and MSM 200mg /day.

3. The Effects of Glipenclamid, and Silibinin on Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats: Histopathological Study
Hayder Gaeed Oufi, Nada Naji Al-Shawi
Abstract
Gastric ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder and has been a major health problem. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used drugs for different indications with association of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. The current work was designed to evaluate the histopathological effects of, K+ATP channel opener, glibenclamide, and silibinin on acute gastric injury induced by administration of indomethacin in the rat. The animals were allocated in six groups, Group 1: animals received normal saline, and served as negative control, Group 2: animals received single dose of 40mg/kg indomethacin, and this group served as positive control, Group 3: animals received single dose of 18mg/kg glibenclamid, Group 4: animals received single dose of 250mg/kg silibilin, Group 5: animals received 2.5 ml olive oil one hour before single dose of 40mg/kg indomethacin, and Group 6: animals received single dose of 250 mg/kg silibilin one hour before  single dose of 40mg/kg indomethacin. Sections of stomachs were examined by light microscope at 100 and 400 × magnification. Glibenclamide show a mild degree of sloughing in mucosa, while normal architecture was seen after administration of silibinin alone, and a mild superficial gastric mucosal lesion was seen when silibinin was given one hour before indomethacin administration. As conclusion the results indicate that silibinin can to attenuate the gastric lesion induced by indomethacin.

4. The Antioxidant Activity of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract-Treated 3T3 Fibroblast Cells
Ranneh Y, Ali F, Fadel, A
Abstract
The existence of reactive oxygen species among cells at high ratio is associated with different types of disorders. A link between exogenous antioxidant supplementation and reducing oxidative stress remains unclear. Since a grave concern has been raised regarding synthetic antioxidant usage, justifying an alternative treatment is required.  Cocoa, a naturally occurring plant containing various functional compounds, was used to determine the cytotoxicity and antioxidant efficacy in 3T3 fibroblast cells. In the present study, ABTS and ORAC assays were deployed as a comprehensive analysis for evaluating the antioxidant activity of cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with (250, 500, 1000 mg/ml) of CPE completely prevented any toxicity on 3T3 cells and enhanced antioxidant activity. Based on ABTS and ORAC assays, CPE had significantly (P < 0.05) potential antioxidant activities compared with Trolox equivalent. A high correlation between total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds from cocoa were a major contributor of antioxidant activity (0.967 ≤ r ≤ 1.00) .These results show that treatment of 3T3 cells in culture with CPE confers a significant protection against oxidation to the cells.

5. Escitalopram Induced Dystonia: A Case Report
Nahid Dave-Momin, Chetan Lokhande, Nilesh Shah, Avinash Desousa
Abstract
Presently a large number of antidepressants are available for the management of depression. Escitalopram is considered to be the safest amongst the various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) group of antidepressants. It has been used in depression with a relatively good safety profile. We report here a case of dystonia that developed in patient who was being treated with Escitalopram.