Objective: Many immunomodulators have also been discovered among the primary metabolites of microorganisms, such as cell wall components. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of intracellular lectin extract from Micromonospora aurantica GF44c strain was evaluated in vivo. Methods: The immunomodulatory potential of intracellular lectin on the phagocytic activity was measured by the carbon clearance rate test, at different doses (30, 50, and100 mg/kg) respectively. Results: Micromonospora aurantica lectin extract increased significatively the phagocytic activity in when compared with the control and thus the clearance rate of carbon was faster after the administration of the actinomycete extract P<0.05. Conclusion: From the above findings, it is concluded that intracellular lectin extract possesses potential for augmenting activity of reticuloendothelial system more at high dose (500 mg/kg).
2. Effect of Antibitiotic Applications on Salivary Amylase and Catalase Kinetic Parameters on Neonatal at Risk of Sepsis In Vitro Ari Yunanto, Priscillia Gunawan, Iskandar, Eko Suhartono
In this present study, we try to demonstrate the effect of antibiotic applications to salivary amylase and catalase kinetic parameters on neonatal at risk of sepsis. This present study was performed at February-June 2015. Saliva samples were taken from 20 newborns (5 from normal newborn and 15 from infants were a risk of sepsis) treated in Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Saliva samples then divided into two groups, one group for salivary amylase and another group for salivary catalase kinetic parameter analysis, respectively. Each group will be divided into 4 subgroups with; T0 served as control which contains saliva+starch or H2O2, T1 which contains saliva+meropenem+starch or H2O2; T2 which contains saliva+amikacin+starch or H2O2; and T3 which contains saliva+diazole+starch or H2O2. Solutions then incubated at 37oC for 1 hours and then was prepared for kinetic parameter analysis. The kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax) were determined using Lineweaver-Burk plot. The results showed that antibiotic treatments could decrease the affinity of both amylum-amylase and H2O2-catalase complex which expressed by the higher Km and Vmax values. From this results, it can be concluded that antibiotic works not just by the common mechanisms, but work with another mechanism, ie. by decreased glucose and increased H2O2 concentrations that will have a negatif effect for bacterial living in neonatal at risk of sepsis.
3. Effects of Lupene-ol And Lupene-on From Aegle marmelos Correa On Histamine Release : In Vitro And In Silico Studies Agung Endro Nugroho, Sisca Ucche, Navista Sri Octa Ujiantari, Sugeng Riyanto, Mohd. Aspollah Hj. Sukari , Kazutaka Maeyama
Aegle marmelos is a tree native to India, and also present in Southeast Asia including Indonesia. Traditionally, A. marmelos is used as anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy. Exploration of its active compounds have been isolated and investigated for their pharmacological activities. Previous study reported that 20(29)-lupene-3a-ol and 20(29)-lupene-3-on can be isolated from the leaves and stem barks. In the study, these lupane-type triterpenes were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, a tumor analog of mast cells. The release of histamine from this mast cell was immunologically and non-immunologically stimulated by DNP24-BSA and thapsigargin, respectively. The histamine release was determined by using HPLC with fluorometric detector. In the study, these lupane-type triterpenes obviously exhibited inhibitory activity on histamine release from mast cell induced by DNP24-BSA. However, these compounds did not alter the histamine release from mast cells induced by thapsigargin. In silico study was carried out to examine the interaction between lupene-ol and lupene-on on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Both of the compounds blockade the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and inhibite the Ca2+ uptake from intracellular cytosolic. Based on the results, the inhibitory effect of lupene-ol and lupene-on might be unrelated to intracellular Ca2+ concentration.
4. Aggravation of Oxidative Stress by Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimumin DMH Induced Colon Injury. Renuka, Sumedha Sharma, Shevali Kansal, Anjana Kumari Negi, Navneet Agnihotri
Context: Medicinal and pharmacological properties of Ocimum (Lamiaceae) have been exploited since ancient times. However, concerns are raised regarding its toxic properties and need attention. Objectives: The present studyevaluates effect of Ocimum gratissimum leaves’ethanolic extract on N,N-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) induced colon toxicity. Material and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and sacrificed after 10 weeks. Group1: Control. Group2: DMH (40mg/kg body weight). Group3: extract+DMH. Group4: extract only. Histopathology and oxidative stress were evaluated in colon. Additionally as NADPH is required for regeneration of reduced glutathione (GSH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities were also evaluated. Results: Normal colonic mucosa and crypt morphology was observed in control group while mild inflammation was seen in all other groups. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation on DMH treatment and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Concomitantly there was an increase in IDH2 activity suggestive on increased requirement of NADPH. Extract+DMH treatment led to further increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in GSH though SOD and catalase (CAT) activities were elevated. Administration of extract alone also augmented oxidative stress by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzymes. Administration of extract either alone or with DMH led to a decrease in IDH2 activity. However, G6PDH activity was increased only on extract treatment. Discussion and Conclusion:The results obtained herein did not show any protective effect of Ocimum gratissimum extract in DMH induced colonic injury, rather it suggests that its administration potentiate oxidative stress in DMH induced colonic toxicity.
5. Reproductive Toxicological Evaluation of Ficus exasperata Ethanolic Extract in Male Albino Rats Usang A. U., Ibor O R, Owolodun O A, Eleng I E, Ujong, U P, Udoh P B
Ficus exasperata popularly known as sand paper tree (due to its rough surfaces) is an important medicinal plant in Africa used traditionally for treating asthma, dyspnea, high blood pressure, rheumatoid, arthritis, ulcer and diabetes. Due to its wide application as a medicinal herb, there is a special need to evaluate the safety and probable toxicological effects of the plant. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the possible reproductive toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of F. exasperata on male albino rats. Phytochemical screening was done to analyse the active constituents in the extract (Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, anthraquinones, glycosides and phenols). Three concentrations: 50, 100, 150 and control (0.0) mg/kg body weight of the extract were utilized and administered orally to the test animals for 3 days. The levels of a major reproductive androgen hormone (testosterone) were measured with the enzyme immune assay (EIA) and changes in reproductive organ weights were evaluated. Ethanolic extract of Ficus exasperata significantly decreased (p<0.05) serum testosterone levels which paralleled changes in gonadal growth and development and this decrease were concentration dependent. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of F. exasperata contain some bioactive constituents that may have reproductive toxicological effects which inhibit testosterone synthesis and reduce reproductive organ development and consequently may result in infertility. The mechanism of action of F. exasperata inducing reproductive toxicological effects may have resulted from the potential ability of some phytochemicals to interact with steroid hormone synthesis and therefore inhibiting testosterone biosynthesis.
6. Antioxidant and Anticancer Agents Produced from Pineapple Waste by Solid State Fermentation Mona M. Rashad, Abeer E. Mahmoud*, Mamdouh M. Ali, Mohammed U. Nooman, Amr S. Al-Kashef
Natural products are economically beneficial, safe and had promising effect. The natural sources such as plants, fruits and vegetables are rich in bioactive compounds which are valuable products for pharmaceutical industry. In fruit processing industry, large volumes of its residual were dumped and thrown as waste material which will be useful if it can be exploited for some beneficial purpose. So the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-8281 to produce valuable products from pineapple waste. The phenolic content of methanolic extracts of unfermented (UFPW) and fermented (FPW) pineapple waste reached 112 and 120 mg Gallic acid/100 g dry waste respectively at concentration of 8 mg/ml. The antioxidant behavior of both methanolic extracts was determined by different methods. The highest levels of antioxidant activities were achieved with FPW extract. The in vitro anticancer activity of both extracts has been assessed against different human cancer cell lines. The results revealed that although both extracts did not show any effect against HepG2, HL-60 or normal HFB4 cells, they exerted anticancer effect closed to the value of the doxorubicin drug against MCF-7, A549 and HCT116 cell lines. The fermented extract was more potent than the unfermented one. GC/MS analysis was carried out to find out the nature of the compounds responsible for the antioxidant and anticancer activities. From forgoing results, the extracts of pineapple wastes as such or fermented one can be used as a good candidate for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer.
7. Phytochemical Constituents Analysis and Neuroprotective Effect of Leaves of Gemor (Nothaphoebe Coriacea) on Cadmium-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: An In-Vitro Study Eko Suhartono, Iskandar, Siti Hamidah, Yudi Firmanul Arifin
The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical compositions and neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of leaves of gemor against Cd-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. Neurotoxicity was induced by 3 mg/l of Cd in a form of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) in brain homogenate. Phytochemical screening of plant extract was determined using the qualitative method to measured the flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and phenolic content. The neurotoxicity effect of Cd and neuroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of leaves of gemor (Nothaphoebe coriacea) was determined by assessing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl compound (CC), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. Phytochemical screening results showed that the plant extract contained all phytochemical constituents with phenolic was the highest. Administration of Cd led to a significant elevation of H2O2, MDA, and CC level and significantly decreased the activity of SOD and CAT compared to control. Administration of plant extract showed significant decreases in H2O2, MDA and CC level and significant increase in SOD and CAT activity compared to Cd administration group. The results suggest that the administration of aqueous extract of leaves of gemor provide significant protection against Cd-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.
8. Machine Learning Classifier Algorithms to Predict Endocrine Toxicity of Chemicals
Renjith P, Jegatheesan K
Bayesian Logistic Regression (BLR), Bayesian Network (BN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Simple Logistic (SL), Lazy Learning (LL), Random Forest (RF), Rotation Forest (Rot-F), and C4.5 (J48) machine learning classifier algorithms were examined to build predictive models for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Datasets of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Androgen Receptor (AR) disrupting chemicals along with their Binding Affinity (BA) values were used as knowledgebase for building the predictive models. Substructure fingerprints (fragment counts) of knowledgebase chemicals were generated using Kier Hall Smarts topological descriptor that utilizes electrotopological state (e-state) indices. LL, Rot-F, and RF algorithms tested on ER training set (200 molecules) gave superior prediction models with Kappa statistic values of 0.89, 0.85, and 0.89. Whereas in case of AR training set (170 molecules), LL, and RF algorithms gave promising results with Kappa statistic values of 0.95, and 0.93. Each model built using classifier algorithms were tested on both AR and ER test datasets (32 and 24 molecules each) and prediction accuracies of classifying chemicals as endocrine disruptor or non-endocrine disruptor had been calculated. BN, NB, Rot-F, RF, and J48 algorithms on ER test dataset showed prediction accuracy above 80% with RMSE values 0.36, 0.37, 0.38, 0.37, and 0.41 respectively. Whereas in case of AR test dataset, BLR, SL, and LL algorithms gave better results with prediction accuracy above 75% with RMSE values of 0.5, 0.49, and 0.47 respectively. Finally, the significance of chemical substructures towards endocrine disruption activity was characterized and ranked, on the basis of molecular descriptors identified by the RF method