Volume8,Issue1

1. Phytochemical Constituents Analysis and Neuroprotective Effect of Leaves of Gemor (Nothaphoebe Coriacea) on Cadmium-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: An In-Vitro Study
Eko Suhartono, Iskandar, Siti Hamidah, Yudi Firmanul Arifin
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical compositions and neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of leaves of gemor against Cd-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. Neurotoxicity was induced by 3 mg/l of Cd in a form of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) in brain homogenate. Phytochemical screening of plant extract was determined using the qualitative method to measured the flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and phenolic content. The neurotoxicity effect of Cd and neuroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of leaves of gemor (Nothaphoebe coriacea) was determined by assessing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl compound (CC), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. Phytochemical screening results showed that the plant extract contained all phytochemical constituents with phenolic was the highest. Administration of Cd led to a significant elevation of H2O2, MDA, and CC level and significantly decreased the activity of SOD and CAT compared to control. Administration of plant extract showed significant decreases in H2O2, MDA and CC level and significant increase in SOD and CAT activity compared to Cd administration group. The results suggest that the administration of aqueous extract of leaves of gemor provide significant protection against Cd-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

Abstract Online: 22-December-15

2. Clinical Implications of PON1 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
Menha Swellam, Magda Sayed Mahmoud, Adel Abdel-Fatah Ali, Mona M.Hefny, Maha Hashim
Abstract
Genetic and environmental factors play an importantrole in the pathogenesis and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD).PON1 Q192R polymorphism has been analyzed extensively, but data on associationand role of its polymorphism in the etiology of CAD are conflicting.We aimed to test the genetic association between PON1 Q192R polymorphism and CAD among Egyptian populations. In this preliminary study 288 CAD and 160 healthy controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted from whole blood andPON1 polymorphism were studiedin relation to CAD using polymerase chain reaction(PCR) followed by restriction length polymorphism.PON1-192 polymorphism reported significant differences between patients and control in RR genotype and lipid profiles. Smoker CAD patients showed significant RR genotype as compared to non-smokers. PON1 enzyme activity was lower in patients as compared to control individuals and was significantly correlated with TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and QR genotype of PON1-192 gene polymorphism. Thus PON1-192R allele and RR genotypewere significantly associated with CAD patients. This association was stronger in smokers, supporting the conclusion that an interaction between PON1polymorphism and smoking augments CAD risk. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted to confirm these associations in different risk factors.

Abstract Online: 22-December-15

3. Study of Immunomodulatory Effect of Seeds of Brassica nigra and Cuminum cyminum in Albino Rats
T.Nandini, D.Ramya Sree, Shaik Janbee,   K. Siva sai kiran, G.Raveendra babu
Abstract
The aim of the Present investigation is to assess the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Brassica nigra L. in combination with Cuminum cyminum against pyrogallol induced immunosuppression in rats. Control group received a dose of pyrogallol 100mg/kg i.p., once daily from day 1 to 7, while the normal group received only vehicle. In another set of experiment the immunomodulatory activity of Brassica nigra 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.,daily from day 1 to day 22 was screened in rats in whom immunosuppression was induced the pyrogallol. Besides the above treatments, the rats from all the groups received sheep red blood cells (SRBC) (0.5×109 cells/100g, i.p.) on day 7 and 13, as the antigenic material to sensitize them for immunological studies. The immunological parameters that are assessed are humoral immune response, cellular immune response, carbon clearance test and white blood cell count.  Invivo antioxidant studies were performed by assessing superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of high dose of Brassica nigra (500mg/kg p.o.) for 22 days significantly (p<0.001) prevented the influence of pyrogallol on primary and secondary humoral immune responses, increased the paw volume (index of cell-mediated immunity) when compared to control group. Administration of equal proportionate dose of Brassica nigra (250mg/kg, p.o.) and Cuminum cyminum (250mg/kg, p.o) for 22 days significantly (p<0.01) increased the paw volume, increased the phagocytic response, increased the WBC count when compared to control group. treatment  with  low  and  high  dose  of  Brassica  nigra  significantly  increased  the superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and significantly  (p<0.05) decreased  the  lipid  peroxidation respectively in a dose dependent manner when compared with control.

Abstract Online: 22-December-15

4. Hepatotoxicity Effect of Rifampicin and Isoniazid via Chlorinative Stress Pathway Mechanism In-vitro
Dona Marisa, Muhammad Rudito, Muhammad Ghali Zagita, Agung Biworo, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
In this present study, we try to investigate the hepatotoxicity effect of RIF and INH vis chlorinative stress pathway in vitro, by measured catalase (CAT) kinetic parameters and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs) level. In this experiment, a liver sample was taken from male rats (Rattus novergicus). Sample the homogenized and divided into three groups with; T0 served as control which contains liver, T1 which contains liver homogenate + 450 mg Rifampicin (RIF); and T2 which contains liver + 300 mg Isoniazid (INH). For CAT kinetic parameters analysis (Km, Vmax, and kcat), in each solution was added hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with different concentrations. Solutions then incubated at 37oC for 1 hours and then was prepared for kinetic parameter analysis. The AOPPs level was analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that both RIF and INH treatments could decrease the affinity of H2O2-CAT complex and increase the turnover rate of the reaction which expressed by the higher Km, Vmax, and kcat values. Also, the results showed that both RIF and INH significantly increased the level of AOPPs in liver homogenate. From this results, it can be concluded that both RIF and INH-induced hepatotoxicity via chlorinative stress pathway by disrupting the CAT activity and increased the AOPPs level.

Abstract Online: 12-January-16

5. Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Morinda citrifolia (L.) on Ethanol-Induced Impairment of Learning and Memory in Mice Passive-Avoidance Test
Kartikasari A,  Adiningsih P, Nurrochmad A
Abstract
The effect of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of Morinda citrifolia (L.) on learning and memory have been conducted in ethanol-induced impairment by mice passive-avoidance test. Animals were administration orally different treatment for seven days the EtOAc fraction of M.citrifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW). Mice received training for four days and test trials were performed at day 7 to 10 after test administration and the region of hippocampus were take for histological obeservation. The results showed that the EtOAc fraction of M.citrifolia 200 and 400 mg/kg BW (P<0.05) reverses ethanol-induced impairment learning and memory in mice passive-avoidance test. In addition, histological observation showed that the EtOAc fraction of M.citrifolia 200 and 400 mg/kg BW restored density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells compare to ethanol group (P<0.05). It conclude that EtOAc fraction of M.citrifolia significantly reversed and improved ethanol-induced impairment learning and memory in mice.

Abstract Online: 12-January-16

6. DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Two Extracts from Agelanthus dodoneifolius (Loranthaceae) Leaves
Boly R, Lamkami T, Lompo M, Dubois J, Guissou I P
Abstract
Agelanthus dodoneifolius (Loranthaceae) commonly named African mistletoe is traditionally used in Burkina Faso as a decoction for the treatment of asthma, stomach-ache and cardiovascular diseases. The current study was designed to assess the DPPH free radical scavenging effect and the flavonoid and phenolic contents of the decoction and maceration extracts from Agelanthus dodoneifolius leaves. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis was also carried out. The decoction and maceration were prepared in water. Phytochemical analysis was realized according to the standard protocols. The scavenging activity was determined using the radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The flavonoid and phenolic contents were assessed using the Neu and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents, respectively. The phytochemical investigation showed the presence of flavonoid, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, carotenoids, anthocyanins and sugars in Agelanthus dodoneifolius dried and powdered leaves. Both decoction and maceration exhibited a significant dose-dependent radical scavenging activity with EC50 values of 8.20 ± 0.25 and 13.20 ± 0.37 µg/mL, respectively. This significant radical scavenging effect may be attributed to their richness in flavonoid and phenolic compounds. This study enhances the ability of Agelanthus dodoneifolius leaves as excellent natural source for antiradical scavenging. Therefore, the results may be taken account for the development of an herbal medicine to treat diseases related to an oxidative damage.

Abstract Online: 12-January-16

7. Alleviating Effect of Gallic Acid on Dexamethasone Induced Insulin Resistance in Albino Mice.
Alvi SB, Mamatha B, Veeresh B
Abstract
Gallic acid is a naturally occurring phenolic compound and is well known for its prominent antioxidant potential. This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance. Dexamethasone is a steroid, clinically used to treat numerous inflammatory conditions. Acute exposure to this drug is known to produce insulin resistance inducing prediabetic condition and hyperglycemia. In the current study, 30 albino mice were divided into 5 groups containing equal number of animals; one of the group was administered with dexamethasone 1 mg/kg i.p. for 28 days to induce insulin resistance where as dexamethasone and gallic acid of 50 mg/kg p.o. and 100 mg/kg p.o. respectively were administered to two groups. Saline and pioglitazone was given to normal and standard control groups respectively. On 29th day, the serum samples and excised pancreatic tissues were collected for biochemical estimations. The serum analysis revealed that treatment with gallic acid effectively reduced elevated glucose, LDL, VLDL and increased HDL levels in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, it was found to decrease the MDA levels and elevate the GSH levels in pancreas. In conclusion, gallic acid treatment in dexamethasone-induced insulin resistant mice exhibited a protective effect.

Abstract Online: 10-February-16

8. Molecular Taxonomic Identification, Biosynthesis and In vitro Antibacterial Activity of ZNO Nanoparticles Using Boerhavia diffusa Against MRSA
Belgin Joseph, Meenu Chacko, Sharrel Rebello, Rishad K S, Ramesh Babu N G , Karthikeyan S
Abstract
Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the cost effective and environmental friendly method for improving the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts. In the present study, biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONps) has been demonstrated using an aqueous extract of Boerhavia diffusa leaves and the antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanoparticles was assessed in contrast to Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 140 nm. The antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties were also evaluated with the green synthesized ZnONPs and found highly effective. The molecular identification by ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) PCR authenticated the taxonomic status of boerhavia diffusa. This  study proved that the ZnONPs could inhibit the activity of biofilms formed by MRSA strains and could be used as a potential antibacterial agent for cleaning and disinfection of MRSA in hospitals and other health care centers. In this regard, there is also an urgent need for further investigation of its use in cleaning and disinfection of equipments used in food industries and contagious materials.

Abstract Online: 10-February-16

9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Crotalaria longipes Wight & Arn, Ethanol Extract in CCl4 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats
K Paulpriya, P S Tresina, V R Mohan
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of aerial part of Crotalaria longipes in CCl4 induced hepatoprotective rats. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4) showed significant elevation of serum GOT, GPT, ALP, total bilirubin, conjugated, unconjugated and lipid peroxidation. Treatment with Crotalaria longipes (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the above mentioned parameters. Regarding antioxidant activity, ethanol extract of Crotalaria longipes exhibited a significant effect showing increasing levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, and GRD by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The ethanol extract of C.longipes have significant effect on the CCl4 induced hepatotoxic animal models.

Abstract Online: 10-February-16

10. Detection of Micronuclei Formation in Petrol Station Pump Attendants in Awka, Awka South, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Umegbolu E I , Ogamba J O,Unkekwe P C
Abstract
The study aimed to detect the extent of micronuclei formation in petrol station pump attendants chronically exposed to petrol fumes in Awka Metropolis, Anambra state, Nigeria.70 participants, made up of 35 exposed and 35 unexposed persons (control group) in the age range of 20-49 years were recruited into the study. Buccal smears were collected from the study participants and used to prepare slides in duplicates for every participant for micronucleus assay. These cells were examined under the microscope after appropriate staining for micronuclei and the frequencies of MN detection were scored per 1000 cells in a field. Analyses of data obtained were done as t-test and Pearson product moment correlations using Minitab 16 software. There was a significant difference in micronuclei detection between the exposed and control groups (p-value= 0.027)). Beyond 2 years of exposure, length of exposure had a weak positive correlation with the number of detected MN (r=0.455). Increasing age and sex did not have any significant effect on the detection of MN in both the exposed and the control groups. The wearing of personal protective equipment (face masks) may be advocated to minimize the quantity of petrol fumes inhaled by the pump attendants during any shift. Self-service pumps could be installed, where feasible, to further reduce the amount of exposure of pump attendants. Pre-employment screening for MN and periodic follow up may be necessary in this category of people. Those attendants with more than normal MN frequency for a healthy population, may be advised to look for alternative employment to reduce their cancer risks from chronic exposure to petrol fumes.

Abstract Online: 10-February-16

11. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in Normal Control and Glucose Induced Hyperglycemic Rats with Hedyotis leschenaultiana DC
Sornalakshmi V, Tresina Soris P, Paulpriya K, Packia Lincy M, Mohan V R
Abstract
The effect of ethanol extract of whole plant of Hedyotis leschenaultiana on Oral Glucose Tolerance was determined. Glibenclamide (600µg/kg) was used as reference drug for comparison. Ethanol extract of Hedyotis leschenaultiana whole plant was evaluated for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose concentration was evaluated at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after treatment in both cases. The extract significantly (p < 0.001) reduced blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats orally at the dose of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract respectively. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of Hedyotis leschenaultiana whole plant will be useful in the treatment of impaired oral glucose tolerance.

Abstract Online: 10-February-16

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