Volume9,Issue4

1. Hepatotoxicity Under Stress of Type II Pyrethroids in Mammals: A Mechanistic Approach
Brijender Bhushan, Prabhu Narain Saxena
Abstract
Hazards and environmental contamination through abuse of vide variety of pesticides has been a matter of great attention worldwide. There has been a broad concern throughout the globe regarding the non target toxicity of pesticides and its assessment. Pyrethorids are greatly in use these days among commercially available pesticides therefore carry more chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Pyrethroids are considered a genuine substitute to organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, by virtue of their high effectiveness, comparatively low non-target toxicity and easy biodegrability. Although, synthetic pyrethroids are considered comparatively safe synthetic pesticides, but their widespread use, non-selective potency and considerable stability in the environment, makes them potentially harmful at very many levels. They represent a considerable threat to various metabolic pathways going inside the cells belonging to various systems with in body of organisms surviving on this planet.   A brief account of toxicological manifestations under stress of type II pyrethroid pesticides have been discussed vide infra.

2. Influence of Ecdysone Agonist, Chromafenozide on Haemocytes of Spodoptera Mauritia (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Ayisha Banu C, Manogem E M, Needhusha O, Praseeja Cheruparambath, Sathyakala K P
Abstract
The rice swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia, is one of the major paddy pest, which causes serious loss of rice crops. Several problems associated with the use of conventional insecticides have strongly demonstrated the need for applying alternative safe compounds such as insect growth regulators (IGRs). The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of ecdysone agonist, Chromafenozide on the larval hemogram of S. mauritia. The fifth instar (penultimate) day 0 larvae were treated with three known concentrations of Chromofenozide(0.5µM, 1µM,2µM ) and they were observed at 24 hour intervals. THC was found to first increase and then decrease at lower concentrations, while at higher concentration, it was found gradually decreasing. The haemogram evidenced after the treatment with lower concentrations showed a remarkable decrease in PLs, OEs, PRs ADs, POs, and VEs at 24 and48 hours, while GRs and SPs exhibited an increase than the control. At higher concentrations, THC values of haemocytes were found to be decreased after 24 and 48 hours as when compared to control. Also, the percentage of all the haemocytes decreased after 72 hours of treatment with three concentrations, as when compared with the control. Administrations of these three concentrations resulted in various cellular abnormalities. The impact of ecdysone agonist, chromafenozide exhibited a decrease in capability of larval immune defense of S.mauritia, by altering the hormonal triggers in the treated individuals, causing significant changes both quantitatively and qualitatively in the haemogram obtained.

3. Evaluation of In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Cassia Tora Leaf Extract
Krunal Sameja, Shaival Rao
Abstract
Plant Cassia tora also known as Chakra Marda or Puvad was found in most part of India and it was previously used in treatment of common skin ailments by Indian tribes. However, there are no scientific evidences justifying use of Cassia tora in wound healing. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate wound healing activity of Cassia tora leaf methanolic extract.  These activities were studied by two animal models i.e. Excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar rats. In excision wound model compared to the control group, percentage contraction was significantly higher in Cassia tora (2%) treated group. Period of epithelization was also found to be significant in treatment group as compared to control group.  In incision wound model, tensile strength of the wound was measured. Statistical significance(p) calculated by ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s test reveals that Cassia tora extracts shows significant wound healing activity in Wistar rats.

4. Effects of Tartrazine Subchronic Ingestion on Brush Border Membrane Enzymes of Female Swiss Albino Mice Intestine
Mehidi A, Mehedi N, Kheroua O, Saidi D
Abstract
Background: Tartrazine is a food colour that possesses adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. However, its effect on intestinal enzymes activity is not been established. Materials and methods: Tartrazine was administered to female swiss albino mice in drinking water at doses of 0.45% and 1% for 13 weeks. Mucosal scrape samples of the jejunum were collected for disaccharidases and dipeptidases activity analyses. Results: Maltase, sucrase and lactase specific activities were lower particularly in groups treated with 1% Tartrazine. Similarly, total and specific activities of L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-alanyl-L-proline and L-glycyl-L-proline dipeptidase are decreased in both treated groups. Villus height and crypt depth were decreased also in the same groups. Conclusion: the subchronic ingestion of Tartrazine at 0.45% and 1% in mice modifies disaccharidases and dipeptidases activities as well as intestine histological structure, thus it affects intestine function.

5. Evaluation of In-vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Gymnema sylvstre in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Ami Makwana, Shaival Rao
Abstract
As per WHO recommendations the search for newer antidiabetic drugs with no or minimal side effects from herbal medicinal plants is a challenge because the synthetic drugs like Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Gymnema sylvestre is a slow growing vulnerable species belonging to family Asclepiadaceae and has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities. The antidiabetic effect of leaves has been demonstrated. The present study was carried out to assess the antidiabetic effect in STZ induced diabetic rats. Body weight and blood glucose level were observed on 0, 7, 14 and 21st day of post treatment. After 21st days of the treatment with Gymnema sylvestre extract, the biochemical parameters were evaluated. The efficacy of the test sample was compared to the standard drug Glibenclamide. The test sample HF01 and HF02 showed extremely significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level. It provided significant effect (p<0.05) on body weight of STZ induced diabetic rats. It showed significant effect (p<0.05) on TC and LDL whereas it showed extremely significant effect (p<0.001) on HDL level. It exerted marked significant (p<0.001) reduction in SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels. The histopathological results of the HF01 and HF02 sample exhibited the regenerative effect on pancreatic β-cells in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats responded favorably to treatment with Gymnema sylvestre extract which exhibit antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects.

6. Ethnobotanical, Pharmacological, Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemistry of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn.  : An Update
Ajeet Singh, Navneet
Abstract
Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn.) is violent everywhere annual, herbivorous weed. It is commonly known as congress grass or gajar ghas. P. hysterophorus shown several hazardous effects on human health and livestock. It reduces the crop production due to its allelopathic effect. In spite of these drawbacks P. hysterophorus is traditionally recognized for its use in the treatment of wounds, fever, ulcerated sores and malaria. It is a weed of global importance. Pharmacological investigation revealed that it possess several therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-feedant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, nematicidal, hypoglycaemic, pesticidal, antiamoebic, antioxidant and antiparasitic activities. The aim of this review is to summarise the pharmacological benefits of P. hysterophorus.